in J tmisuiU^ THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE FROM ITS ORGANIZATION IN 1816 TO THE YEAR 1896. »♦ - yx* • - «... _ BY REV. EDWARD L. WARREN, D.D. in REPRINTED FROM MEMORIAL HISTORY OF LOUISVILLE. Chicago, 1896. "Remember the days of old, consider the years of generations and generations; ask thy father, and he will shew thee; ihy elH'ers;'attd;they;will tell thee." TABLE OF CONTENTS. Chapter I.— 18H5-1S3G. Presbyterian Settlers Before the Organization — The First Church — Ministry of Rev. D. C. Banks — Bev. Daniel Smith First Pastor Installed — Pastorates of Bev. Gideon Blackburn, D. D., and Bev. Geo. C. Ashbridge, D. D., and Installation of Bev W. L. Breckcnridge, D. D. — Destruction of the First Church by Fire — Boll of Officers — Organization of the Second Church — Ministry of Bev. E. N. S.nvlell, D. D. , and Installation of Bev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D. — List of Elders — Organization of the Third Church on Hancock Street — Fourteen Years of Unpublished History — Re-organization of the Third Church on Tenth Street — Bev. Joseph T. Russell, Pastor — The New School Controversy — Plan of Union of 1801 — Ecclesiastical Control of Educational and Missionary Operations — Doctrinal Differences — New Measures in Conducting Revivals — The Division in Kentucky — The Church in Louisville Undivided. Chapter II.— 1836-1866. The First Church Bebuilt on Sixth and Green Streets — Pastorates of Bev. W. L. Breckenridge and Bev. T. A_ Iloyt, and Installation of Rev. S. R. Wilson, D. D. — List of Ruling Elders and Deacons — -The Second Church — Pastorates of Rev. Dr. Humphrey, Rev. Dr. Bullock and Bev. Stuart Robinson, D. D. — Boll of Officers— The Third Church— Ministry of Bev. Joseph Huber and Bev. David S. Tod — New Church Building at Eleventh and Walnut Streets — Its Destruction by a Cyclone — Pastorates of Bev. John II. Bice and Bev. W. T. McElroy — Organization of the Fourth Church — Pastorates of Bev. M. D. Williams and Bev. T. Leroy Senour — Organization of the Chestnut Street Church — Pastorates of the Bev. L. J. Halsey, D. D. , and Bev. Jno. L. McKee, D. D». — List of Ruling Elders and Deacons — Organization of the Portland Avenue Church — Pastorates of Rev. A. A. E. Taylor and Bev. Edward Wurts — Semi-centennial Resume — Denominational Characteristics — Doctrinal Teachings — Government by Presbyters — Friend of Higher Education — Evangelistic in Method and Public-Spirited — Constituent Elements of Its Membership. The Division of 1866 — Causes Which Led to the Separation — Action of the General Assembly with Reference to the Presbytery of Louisville — Subject of Loyalty to the Federal Government — Slavery — Deliverance of 1SI15 — Division of the Church in Kentucky — Property Question — Efforts to Bring About Re-union. Chapter III.— 1866-1896. Churches Connected with the Southern General Assembly — The First Church — Ministry of Rev. S. R. Wilson, D. D. — Litigation Over the Property — Pastorate of Rev. W. J. Lowrie, D. D. — Death of Mr. Samuel Casseday — Pastorates of Rev. Dr. Guerrant and Rev. T. D. Witherspoon, D. D. — Erection of New Church on Fourth and York Streets— Installation of Rev. J. S. Lyon, D. D. — List of Ruling Elders and Deacons — The Second Church — Pastorate of Rev. Stuart Robinson, D. D. — Erection of New Church on Second and Broadway— Ministry of Rev. J. \Y. Pratt, D. D. — Installation of Bev. C. R. Hemphill, D. D.— Roll of Billing Elders and Deacons — The Third Church Ministry of Rev. W. II. Claggett, Rev. J. J. Cook and Rev. J. DeWitt Duncan— Death of Dr. L. P. Yaudoll— Ministry of Rev. J. H. Moore, Rev. B. F. Beddin- ger, Rev. T. Carey Johnson, Rev. D. P. Junkin and Installation of Rev. Mr. Mclllvaine — The Fourth Church — Ministry of Rev. Homer Hendee — Sale of Property — The Portland Avenue Church — Pastorate of Rev. Juo. D. Matthews, Rev. J. II . Moore, Rev. J. H. Morrison, Rev. G. L. Bitzer, and Installation of Bev. David M. Sweets— The Highland Church— Pastorates of Bev A. D. McClure, Bev. B. E. Caldwell, and Installation of Bev. T. M. Hawes — The Woodland Church — The Westminster Church— The Stuart Bobinson Memorial Church and the Crescent Hill Church. 216218 Churches Connected with the Northern General Assembly — The Chestnut Street Church — Pastorate of Rev. J no. L. McKee, D. D. — Death of Mr. Edgar Needham and Mr. W. 8. Vernon— Pastorate of Rev. A. B. Simpson — Erection of the Broadway Tabernacle — Pastorate of Rev. William Adams and Rev. A. A. Willitts, D. D. — Change of Name to the Warren Memorial. — Installation of Rev. S. M. Hamilton; D. D. — The College Street Church— Pastorates of Rev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D. . Rev. Robert Christie, D. D., Rev. J. L. McNair, Rev. J. H. Herbener, and Installation of Rev. J. Kensey Smith — Roll of Officers — The Walnut Street Church — Name Changed to Covenant Church — The Fourth Church — Pastorate of Rev. W. C. Matthews, D. D. , Rev. J. H. Burlison and Rev. S. L. Hamilton — The Central Church — Pastorates of Rev. W. C. Young, D. P., Rev. J. M. Richmond, D. D., and Installation of Rev. W. B.Jennings, D. D. — The Knox Colored Church — The Olivet Church — Pastorates of Rev. Edward L. Warren, D. D., Rev. J. W. Boyer and Rev. J. P. Dawson — Name Changed to Calvary Church — Installation of Rev. L. J. Adams — The Alliance Church — Ministry of Rev. T. E. Montgomery and Rev. E. C. Trimble — The Presbyterian Orphans 7 Home — Division of the Property — Establishment of the Preston Street Orphanage in Connection with the Northern Church, and that at Anchorage in Connection with the Southern Church — The Louisville Theological Seminary — Resume of Church History — Reference to Sabbath School and Charitable Work — The Religious Press and Literature — Moderators of the General Assembly — Close of the Review CHAPTER I THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. BY REV. EDWARD L. WARREN, D. D. The organic life of the Presbyterian Church in the city of Louisville dates from January, 1816. Previous to this year, there had settled at the Falls several families whose names are associated with the rise and progress of Presbyterianism in this city. Some of these families, with Presbyterian an- cestry, coming from the Valley of Virginia, de- lighted to trace their origin either through Penn- sylvania, to the hills of Scotland and North of Ire- land, or through the Huguenot settlements, to Sunny France. Others, with Presbyterian affinity, coming from Rocky New England, added to the establishment of the church an element of perma- nent value. Thus did the staunch Scotch-Irish, the earnest Highlander, the cultivated Huguenot, and the thrifty New Englander contribute each, at this early period, to the wealth of our local Presbyterian character and history. In the westward march of emigration, these various elements converged to- ward the Falls in two prominent streams, the one coming directly from Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina, the other down the Ohio from New England, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Among the earlier settlers in Louisville before the close of the last century were Alexander Pope and Fortunatus Cosby, from Virginia, and Thomas Prather and John I. Jacob, from Maryland, whose wives were members of the Presbyterian Church, together with their father-in-law, Captain Aaron Fontaine, that noble Huguenot, whose descendants have been so prominently connected with the de- velopment of the Presbyterian Church in this city. The Bullitts, also of Huguenot stock, were from the Old Dominion, as was Rev. James Vance, who set- tled on Beargrass, a few miles from the city, and opened a classical school at Middletown. A num- ber of Presbyterian families from Pennsylvania, having formed a settlement in this neighborhood as early as 1789*, and built a church near the Run, which they named after their native state, invited Mr. Vance to become their pastor. He accepted the call and was installed November 6th, I799f, pastor of the churches at Middletown and Pennsyl- vania Run. To this pastor and teacher was com- mitted the oversight of the scattered flock in this village, as appears from his appointment by the Presbytery of Transylvania, October 7th, 1800, "to preach to the congregation at Louisville." We recognize, still farther, among those who were here before the organization of the church, the names of the Scotch and Irish families of the McFarlands, the McNutts, the Carys, and the Tunstalls. New England was first represented by William S. Vernon, a relative of the old admiral, after whom Mount Vernon was named. Coming to Louisville in 1807 from Newport, Rhode Island, Mr. Vernon, although not a professor of religion, valued the in- fluences of the church and, upon his establishment in business, took with others an active part in the erection of a house of worship. The Presbyterian Church in Kentucky, having just passed through the great revival of 1801 to 1809, had entered upon a period of decline. The second war with England, too, had a depressing effect upon the early church. In the meantime, there had come from Rhode Island Mr. Charles B. King, Miss Caroline King, a niece of Mr. Vernon's, and from Fairfield, Conn., Joel and Abner Scribner, who had first settled at Albany, N. Y., and then coming West, had founded, in 1813, our neighboring village of New Albany. After the restoration of peace with England, the increased immigration westward brought acces- sions from the older states and the little flock felt •Minutes of the Transylvania Presbytery, 1789. tDavidson's "History of the Presbyterian Church In Kentucky," p. 122. 2 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. encouraged to take steps toward the establishment of a church. For a number of years before the church was organized services were held in private houses. In 1815, Rev. Daniel C. Banks, a Con- gregational minister from Fairfield, Connecticut, came as a missionary to Kentucky. There being no house of worship here convenient, he was in- vited, as had been Drs. Blackburn, Cleland, and other passing missionaries before him, to preach in an amusement hall with all the stage scenery about him*. A social entertainment was given him at the house of Messrs. Fetter and Hughes, at which there were present Messrs. Bullitt, Thomas Prathcr, Robert Steele, and others; and a meeting was held at the hotel to see what could be done towards se- curing a settlement of this minister of the Gospel in Louisville. The population of the place was at this time less than three thousand. The history of the Presbyterian Church in the city naturally divides itself into three periods, 1816- 1836, 1836-1866 and 1866-1806. The earliest record in the minutes ' rS churchf terian °f tne old Fi rst Church to which we have had access through the courtesy of the clerk of the session, Mr. Henry V. Escottf, makes mention of a meeting of a number of citizens, in January, 1816, who formed them- selves into what they called a Presbyterian Society organization, and appointed Cuthbert Bullitt, Archibald Allen, John Gwathmey, Paul Skidmore, Joshua Heddington, and Alexander Pope, Esq., trustees to prosecute, in their name, a call for the pastoral services of Rev. Mr. Banks, and also to in- itiate steps toward the erection of a house of wor- ship. A call was made out in the language of the form of government of the Presbyterian Church on April 23rd, 1 816, and Rev. James Vance was ap- pointed to arrange the details before the Presby- tery. Having accepted the call, Mr. Banks returned to Louisville, August 15th, bringing a certificate of dismisson from the association at Fairfield, and was duly "appointed" by the Presbytery to have charge of the church at Louisville. The salary being but $900 per annum for one-half of his time, Mr. Banks opened a school with his wife's sister, ♦"Letter in the Presbyterian Herald," 1854. tl am indebted for information and aid in the prepara- tion of this narrative to Messrs. Patrick Joyes, George W. Morris, Dr. John Thruston, W. H. Bulkley, John Homire, Rev. C. R. Hemphill, G-arvin Bell, and E. W. U. Humphrey; for access to files in his possession to the editor of the Christian Observer, and to Col. R. T. Dur- rett's well-known library. Miss Alary Ann Silliman» cousin of Prof. Silliman, of Yale College, as his assistant. In January, 181 7, the following persons met and adopted a confession and covenant: Mrs. Alex- ander Pope, Mrs. Fortunatus Cosby, Mrs. Patrick McFarland, her sister, Miss McNutt — all from Vir- ginia; Daniel C. Banks, Mrs. Martha A. Banks, Miss Mary Ann Silliman, Charles B. King, and Miss Caroline King, from New England; Thomas Hill, Jr., from Philadelphia; Stephen Beers, and Mrs. Lydia Beers, from New Jersey; Mrs. Jane Cary, from Armagh, Ireland, together with Mrs. Susanna Fetter, Mrs. Mary Denwood, Mrs. Sarah Barnes, and Mrs. Lucy R. Tunstall. Charles B. King and J. M. Tunstall were elected elders, May 17th, 1817, but the latter having declined, a second election was held, and on August 18th, 1819, Daniel Wurts, from Philadelphia; Elias Ayers, from Mor- ristown, N. J.; Charles B. King and Jacob Reinhard were installed elders. A house of worship was, in the meantime, erected by the trustees on a lot 100x105 feet, on the west side of Fourth cross street, 104 feet south of Market street. This lot was conveyed by that eminently useful citizen, Thomas Prather, Esq., to the trustees, Daniel Fet- ter and Cuthbert Bullitt, "to be held in trust for the use and benefit of the Presbyterian sect and con- gregation of Christians at Louisville, and as a place of Christian worship forever, and to and for no other use whatever." This house stood north of and adjoining what is now Klauber's gallery, set- ting a little back on the lot, with two doors of en- trance, reached by two steps. McMurtrie, in his "Sketches of Louisville," published in 1819, says: "There are but three churches in the city, one for the Methodists, a second for the Catholics, and a third for the Presbyterians, neither of which is re- markable for its appearance, with the exception of the latter, which is a neat, plain and spacious build- ing, on which a steeple is about to be erected. It is furnished with galleries and an organ loft, the interior being divided into pews, intersected by three aisles, and upon the whole, though no chef d'oeuvre of architectural design, reflects much credit upon the place." Mr. Banks pursued the work of building up his congregation earnestly, and also took an active part in the organization of the Presbyterian Church in New Albany, Ind. To this church he dismissed, December 7, 181 7, several valuable members, among whom were the wife of Joel Scribner, Esq., Stephen Beers, who was made an elder, Mrs. Lydia THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 3 Beers, his wife, and Miss Mary Ann Silliman, who became afterward Mrs. Elias Ayers. We learn from the minutes of the First Church that in ac- cordance with a custom of the times, the names of those who were present at the Lord's Supper were recorded, and also of those who were absent. Persons visiting the city and who wished to com- mune were required to obtain permission before- hand from the Session of the Church. During Mr. Bank's fourth year, some question having arisen as to his relation to the church, the Presbytery recognized his "appointment" as minister in charge. An appeal from this decision of the Presbytery hav- ing been taken to the Synod of Kentucky, the lat- ter body declared, October, 1820, that Mr. Banks was not the pastor of the church, as he had not been installed. Although retiring from the active pas- torate, Mr. Banks remained in the city until his death in 1844, a useful minister in the community. He had officiated at the funeral of General George Rogers Clark, in 181 8, was commissioner to the General Assembly in 1828, and served as secretary of the Kentucky Historical Society in 1838, when James Freeman Clarke was one of its leading spirits. The first regular pastor of the First Church was Rev. Daniel Smith*, from Vermont, who had been associated with Rev. S. J. Mills, one Pastors °f t ' iat immortal trio, Judson, Newell and Mills, who began the modern foreign missionary movement in this country, Judson and Newell going to India, and Mills to the American Indiansf. Mr. Smith was engaged with Mr. Mills irP his missionary tours and in that splendid work in the South and West which resulted in the formation of the American Bible Society. He was installed March 4th, 1822, and was highly esteemed as a minister of refined taste, cultivated mind and glowing piety. During his pastorate, the congregation substituted the Con- fession of Faith for the confession and covenant, introduced by Mr. Banks, and which had been a source of controversy from the beginning. Mr. Smith's tact tended much to restore harmony in the church. At this sad period, when the town was al- most depopulated by a malignant fever, the records of the church contain several mourning pages, which mention the names of members of the church, who had been carried off by the fearful scourge. ♦"Bishop's History of the Church in Kentucky," 1824, p. 184. tNevin's "Presbyterian Encyclopaedia," p. 524. Charles B. King, the leading elder who had just represented his Presbytery in the General Assem- bly, at Philadelphia, died in August, 1822. Mr. Vernon's life was despaired of, and the beloved and talented pastor, Mr. Smith, died February 22, 1823. He was buried in Mr. Vernon's lot in the Western Cemetery. The next pastor, Rev. Gideon Blackburn, D. D.,* from Tennessee, was called June 9th, 1823, and beginning his duties the following fall, was installed January 4th, 1824. This noted divine was a per- son of commanding appearance, being six feet two inches tall. Possessed with a benignant counten- ance, a silvery voice and wonderful descriptive powers, he brought to the pulpit qualities which soon made him very popular in the city. He was elected the fall after his installation Moderator of the Synod of Kentucky. During his second year, a revival swept over the place and added to the church many prominent families. The member- ship of the church increased during the three years of his pastorate from fifty to one hundred and thirty, and the congregation became one of the wealthiest and most influential in the state. Dr. Blackburn was called to the presidency of Centre College, Dan- ville, Kentucky, and the pastoral relation was dis- solved October, 1827. For several years, the church was without a pastor, the pulpit, however, being constantly supplied. In August, 1828, a work of grace began in this congregation under the preaching of Rev. James Gallaharf, Dr. Fred- erick A. Ross and Rev. Mr. Garrison, and thirty- six persons were added to the communion of the church on profession of their faith, among whom were William Garvin, Abijah Bayless, Joseph Dan- forth, Heath J. Miller, Jabez Baldwin, and others, afterwards prominent in the church. This meeting was one of sixteen protracted services held by these evangelists in Kentucky and Ohio, during which more than one thousand persons were received into the church, including such men as Samuel R. Wil- son, and J. G. Montfort. In June, 1829, Rev. Eli N. Sawtell, from New England, laboring as an evangelist in Kentucky, was invited to take charge of the church. After supplying the pulpit for eight months, he yielded to an earnest solicitation to re- tire, with a small colony, and form a new Presby- terian Church. Mr. Sawtell married a daughter of one of Louisville's well-known citizens, Cornelius *Sprague's "Annals of the American Pulpit," Vol. IV., p. 43. tSprague's "Annals," Vol. IV., p. 533. 4 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. Van Buskirk. The population of the city was, at this lime, about 12,000. After the withdrawal of this colony, a second, consisting of twelve persons, left the First Church, and formed the Presbyterian Church of Jeffersonville, Ind., to which Rev. Ed- ward P. Humphrey was afterward called. In June, 1830, Rev. George C. Ashbridge, of Tuscumbia, Ala., was called and installed pastor the following fall. In September of this year, Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, D. D., and Rev. James Gallahar, of Cincinnati; Rev. E. N. Sawtell, of the Second Church, and Rev. S. K. Snead, of New Albany, formerly a member of the First Church, held a sac- ramental meeting in a beautiful grove on Corn Island. A number of persons professed conver- sion, and united with the First Church. The trus- tees of the First Church at this time were Patrick McFarland, Samuel Casseday, William Hart, Will- iam Garvin, and Dr. Llewellyn Powell. The old church on Fourth street entertained in October, 1832, for the second time in its history the Synod of Kentucky, Rev. John T. Edgar, D. D., preaching the opening sermon, and Rev. John C. Young, D. D., being elected moderator. Mr. Ashbridge was highly esteemed by his congregation and served the church faithfully until his death, May 4th, 1834. He was buried in the Western Ceme- tery, on Jefferson street. His monument bears this inscription: ''Rev. George W. Ashbridge, late pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. Born in Philadelphia, in 1800. Died in Louisville, Kentucky, May 4th, 1834. "This memorial of a mourning people's love, is erected to his worth by the mem- bers of the church and congregation over which he presided, in the ministry of rec- onciliation, three and a half years with great diligence in his high calling, holi- ness of life and much usefulness." An invitation was extended to Rev. R. J. Breck- inridge, D. D., who had just issued his celebrated "Act and Testimony" in the new school controversy, to become the pastor, and upon his declining a call was issued, November 8th, 1835, for the services of his brother, Rev. William L. Breckinridge, D. D., who began his ministry January 8th, 1836. An event of no small interest to the congregation oc- curred at the close of an evening service on October 29th, 1836, when the house of worship took fire from the frame building adjoining and was totally destroyed. The bell is said to have rung its own requiem as it fell into the ruins. Mr. Casseday, in his valuable "History of Louisville," describes the interest taken by the citizens in that old bell in the clock tower. He says: "This splendid instru- ment, the first large bell in the city, was esteemed and venerated to a degree far beyond that which is usually felt for an inanimate object. It had a hold upon the affections of all ages, sexes and classes of the people, as well the inhabitants as those who visited the city periodically. It was used to announce all public tidings, whether of meetings, fires or deaths. Its clear and silvery notes were heard for miles around, and brought joy or terror, or woe to a thousand hearts." The day after the fire, the bell was exhumed from the debris and car- ried off piecemeal, to be kept as relics. The cus- tom, peculiar to our city, of ringing the fire-bells at ten o'clock at night, dates from the ringing at that hour of the old bell on the First Church. Steps were 'taken at once to rebuild the house of worship. The ruling elders of the First Church during this period — from 1816 to 1836 — were: Charles B. King, 1819-22; Jacob Reinhard, 1819-31; Daniel Wurts, 1819-31; Elias Ayers, 1819-23; Abi- jah Bayless, 1829-46; W. W. Laws, 1829-42; Isaac Stewart, 1829-32; Dr. John P. Harrison, 1834-36; James Wiley, 1834-40; Hugh Foster, 1834-36, and Henry E. Thomas, 1834-52. The Second Presbyterian Church was organized April 17, 1830. The records of the church previous to 1866 have been lost, and we are chuTch indebted to Mr. George W. Morris for his admirable history of this church. The organization took place at the resi- dence of Marvin D. Averill, Rev. Daniel C. Banks presiding. Letters of dismission from the First Church were presented by the following persons: Dr. B. H. Hall, Miss Lucy Hall, William S. Ver- non, Mrs. America Vernon, M. D. Averill, Mrs. Re- becca Averill, Heath J. Miller, Mrs. Sarah Cocke, Mrs. Martha Price, Mrs. Henrietta Wilson, Mrs. Sarah M. Barnes and Mrs. Mary Denwood. Four members were received from Frankfort: Dr. J. J. Miles, his wife and two daughters. William S. Ver- non, J. J. Miles and M. D. Averill were elected eld- ers. Mr. Sawtell, entering upon his pastoral work earnestly, was installed April 9, 1831. In the mean- time efforts were put forth to secure a place of wor- ship. A building committee was appointed, con- THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 5 sisting of Daniel Fetter, W. S. Vernon, Thomas Jones and M. D. Averill. A lot on the east side of Third cross street, 297 feet south of Green, 85x115 feet, was procured for $1,000, there being reserved in the deed the 10-foot court on the south side of the lot. Mr. Sawtell went East and visited Rev. Albert Barnes and other ministers in Philadelphia, New York and New England, from whose congrega- tions he received $2,227 in money, besides much building material to aid the struggling church. The sanctuary was completed, and with appropriate ser- vices dedicated to God September 28, 1832, Rev. John C. Young, D.D., President of Centre College, preaching the sermon. The Sunday-school and church services were held on Green Street, between Fourth and Fifth, and then in a plain one-story building, about the center of the Court House ground, on the west side of Fifth Street. Here ser- vices were held until the basement of the church was completed. In speaking of the organization of the Second Church, Dr. Sawtell says: "The im- portance of this step soon became apparent to all. The First Church called immediately another pas- tor, thus strengthening our hands and adding great- ly to the efficiency and power of the church efforts throughout the city. We both found ample field and mutually rejoiced in the success with which it pleased God to crown our labors. Instead of weak- ening, the First Church increased in strength and vigor, while our little band of twelve soon became a host. Instead of the school house, in which we be- gan to worship, the Lord enabled us within three years to build a commodious brick church, with a regular congregation of hearers of from seven to eight hundred, and increasing the church member- ship from twelve to a hundred and sixty, with week- day schools for little children, and Sunday-schools so prosperous and vigorous as to attract the atten- tion of passing strangers." Owing to his impaired health, Mr. Sawtell resigned in the spring of 1836. Mr. L. L. Warren, writing to his wife, under date of May 1, 1836, says: "This morning attended the Second Presbyterian Church. Rev. E. N. Sawtell preached his farewell sermon, which was very af- fecting. He pointed out the dangers that beset the church in this city, first, the difficulty of private devo- tion; second, the want of time to study the Scrip- tures; third, the neglect of the Sabbath observance; fourth, the desire to gain riches. As his society are many of them merchants, his admonitions were mostly for them. He is spoken of as being an ex- cellent man, and leaves his society to regain his health. He expects to leave for Havre, France, next Tuesday." Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, having served the church at Jeffersonville from December, 1833, to August, 1835, on a salary of $300, in addition to what he received from teaching, returned to New England. During Mr. Sawtell's ministry a series of lectures on Christian Evidences had been deliv- ered in town. Upon the failure of one of the speak- ers, the name of the young pastor in Jeffersonville was mentioned as a supply. Mr. Humphrey was secured, and his lecture left such an impression on the community that an urgent appeal was made to the congregation upon Mr. Sawtell's resignation to call him to the pastorate. Mr. W. S. Vernon took a trip to New England, and by personal presenta- tion secured a favorable consideration of the call. A son of Rev. Heman Humphrey, President of Am- herst College, Mr. Humphrey brought to this city attainments as a teacher and minister of the Word which stamped him as a man of future usefulness and influence. He had been associated in Amherst Col- lege as a tutor with such men as Governor A. H. Bullock, of Massachusetts; Henry Ward Beecher, Dr. B. M. Palmer, of New Orleans, and Rev. Stuart Robinson. He began his ministry here early in 1836. The ruling elders during this period were W. S. Vernon, 1830-1847; Jas. J. Miles, 1830-1832: M. D. Averill, 1830-1839; Daniel Wurts, 1832-1838; Jacob M. Weaver, 1832-1838, and Heath J. Miller, 1832-1838. The Third Presbyterian Church was organized on the Saturday before the last Sabbath in May, 1832, by a commission of Presbvterv "ch^" coasting of Rev. D. C. Banks, Rev. G. W. Ashbridge and Rev. E. N. Sawtell, together with Ruling Elders J. J. Miles, W. W. Laws and M. D. Averill. A petition had been sent to Presbytery April 5, 1832, signed by A. S. Smith, Thomas Cowan, James Grubb, Julian Grubb, James T. Gamble and Anna Lintner, asking that they be organized into a church in the eastern section of the City of Louisville. Elder J. J. Miles, together with his wife, Chloe J., and two daughters, Anna B. and Maria R., presented letters of dismis- sion from the Second Church,* and Dr. Miles was elected elder of the Third Church. The congrega- tion worshipped on Hancock Street, in a frame building, seventy feet by forty-five, which had been erected for religious services. The pastor, Rev. Ja- ♦Sawtell's "Manual of the Second Presbyterian Church," 1833. 6 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. cob F. Price,* and Dr. Miles purchased lotsf adjoin- ing the church, with the intention of forming a Presbyterian settlement. On October 14, 1833, Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge, D. D., conveyed to Garnett Duncan, Edward D. Hobbs, A. Bayless and William. Garvin, of the First Church, one hundred feet by one hundred and five, on the east side of Hancock Street, between Main and Market, south of and adjoining a twelve-foot alley, "being the lot on which a small church, called the Third Presby- terian Church, now stands, in trust, that the con- gregation of the Third Presbyterian Church, or any other Presbyterian Church and congregation that may be built or organized on said lot, shall be al- lowed to use and occupy this lot as the site for a Presbyterian Church forever, and in trust, that they may convey the site hereby vested in them under certain conditions, of which the Presbytery of Louis- ville is constituted perpetual arbitrator." One of the conditions made in the deed, pledging this church to soundness in the faith, was "that it is to be a Presbyterian Church, under the care of and in connection with the Synod of Kentucky, and the doctrines taught and held in this church are to be those contained in the Word of God, as expounded by the present standards of the Presbyterian Church in the United States; that is to say, the Westminster Confession of Faith, and Catechisms, as now pub- lished. "X The removal of some of the leading mem- bers from the city and of Rev. Mr. Price to West Lexington Presbytery, April, 1834, discouraged this hopeful project, and the church, as an organization, gradually became scattered by 1836. Elder W. J. Dinwiddie, however, of the First Church, who had secured funds for the erection of the frame building, threw his enthusiasm into the mission, and, as super- intendent, built up the Sunday school until it be- came the largest in the city. In the meantime a project, popularly called the Fourth Presbyterian Church, had been started as early as 1832, in the western part of the city, on Chapel Street, between Market and Main. Services were then held in a frame dwelling on the south side of Market, between Tenth and Eleventh. Rev. John G. Simrall w-as pastor.§ In 1835 a house of worship was built on the east side of Tenth Street, between Market and Jefferson, adjoining the resi- "Louisville City Directory, 1832. tJefferson County Court Records, Deed Book LL., p. 339. tJefferson County Court Records, Deed Book LL., p. 341. §Louisville City Directory, 1832. dence of Mr. Jabez Baldwin, the well-known foun- dryman. This congregation asked to be organized as the Fourth Church, but since the up-town church had become scattered, was reorganized April 19, 1836, as the Third Presbyterian Church. The orig- inal members were: H. R. Tunstall, Mrs. Lucy R. Tunstall, Jabez Baldwin, Mrs. Frances Baldwin, Ja- cob Marcell, Mrs. Sarah Marcell, Joseph Day, Mrs. Phoebe Day, Thomas J. Hackney, Mrs. Elizabeth Hackney, H. H. Young, Rachael Lusk, L. Tracey, Mrs. Anna Tracey, Margaret Tracey, Sarah Jane Wisner, Louisa Culver, Mrs. Bellrichards, Anna Lint- ncr and J. T. Gamble, the last two being in the origin- al up-town church. H. R. Tunstall, Jacob Marcell, Jabez Baldwin and H. H. Young were elected eld- ers. Rev. Joseph T. Russell, formerly pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church, Newark, N. J., was the first pastor. We are thus brought to the close of the first period of our narrative, with three organ- ized churches and one mission in the city, these churches having received into their communion over six hundred members. The absorbing event of this notable year was the culmination of what is known as the "New School Controversy.'"* Two schools of The New School ■ , .. , , controversy. thought and policy had grown up in the church, which may be desig- nated as conservative and progressive. The con- troversy which resulted in the division of 1837 had its root in the Plan of Union, formed in 1801 be- tween the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church and the Congregational Association of Con- necticut. This plan, projected by some of the best men in the church, aimed at harmony in new set- tlements between two denominations, Congrega- tional and Presbyterian, agreeing in doctrine but differing in church government. By this plan, Presbyterian Churches were allowed to call Con- gregational ministers, who still remained in connec- tion -with some Association, and Congregational Churches could call Presbyterian ministers who still held their membership in some Presbytery. In the practical working of the plan it was found that "committeemen" claimed seats in Presbyterian Church courts with regularly installed elders. This the New School allowed. The Old School felt that the committeemen, not having subscribed to the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church, ought not to be allowed to sit in church courts with •Wood's "History of the Presbyterian Controversy," 1843. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 7 elders and vote on measures involving the admin- istration of the Presbyterian Church. They did not object to Congregationalism itself, but did object to Congregationalism in the Presbyterian Church. Re- peated protests were made against the presence of these committeemen until 1832, when the General Assembly passed a resolution declaring that the Plan of Union, rightly construed, does not author- ize any committeeman to sit in any case in Synod or the General Assembly. It is evident that the plan was but temporary, as it blended two distinct forms of church government and must necessarily prove ultimately ineffectual. A second source of disturb- ance* was the question of ecclesiastical control of educational and missionary operations. As the church grew and pushed the cause of evangeliza- tion, to meet the demands of the great West, two antagonistic theories developed, one seeking to work through voluntary societies, undenominational in character^ the other aiming to multiply benevo- lent agencies under church control. The Presby- terian Church contributed its funds through socie- ties established by the Congregational Church. Many Presbyterians, it is true, both ministers and elders, were directors in these societies, still the feel- ing grew that the Presbyterian Church ought to control its own agencies, and so there were estab- lished, in 1816, the Board of Home Missions, in 1819 the Board of Education, and at the time of the division in 1837 the Board of Foreign Missions. As these measures gradually unfolded, the New School party advocated the cause of the voluntary societies, and the Old School desired organizations under the control of the General Assembly, sup- ported by contributions from the churches and that sent out Presbyterian ministers. These questions were debated for years, and would, perhaps, not have led to a separation, inasmuch as they would naturally have adjusted themselves in time. In addition, however, to these differences in regard to the policy and polity of the church, there arose anotherf of a more serious nature. There had appeared in New England certain so-called "improvements" on Cal- vinism. These were withstood by prominent con- servative ministers in the Congregational Church. In 1828 they made their appearance in the Presby- terian Church, and were, as the Old School claimed, allowed among the New School party. The more conservative element were unwilling to admit the idea of improvement in the generally received sys- ♦Baird's "History of the New School," p. 283. f'The Reunion Memorial Volume," 1837-1870, p. 12. tern of Gospel truth. Progress in Biblical criticism and exegesis were fully recognized, and it was also admitted that, from time to time, a fuller statement of Christian doctrine might be made, and yet the assumption that any part of essential Gospel truth awaited the discovery of modern times, or that the system of truth, as held, could be improved upon, was rejected. It was claimed that the doctrines of the standards were the doctrines of the Word of God. Rev. Albert Barnes, Rev. George Duffield and Rev. Lyman Beecher were placed on trial and ultimately acquitted. Still the relations between these two schools on these doctrinal questions be- came strained. About the same time there arose a fourth cause of disturbance, namely: certain new measures in conducting revivals, which were intro- duced in Western New York by Mr. G. C. Finney. Some of these measures were carried to excess by his followers. As opposed to these innovations, the Old School party upheld the means of grace, espe- cially sacramental meetings, long communion ta- bles, seasons of preparation for the Lord's Supper, fencing the table, and objected to the order of re- vival preachers, artificial revivals, the anxious seat, rising for prayer, inquiry meetings, pointed address- es to the impenitent with a view to conversion, and hasty admissions to the church. The lines became well drawn and the probability of a division was in- creased by the fact that the leaders were found on the same side of most questions involved. In a word, the New School party upheld the Plan of L'nion of 1801 between the Congregational and the Presbyterian Churches as a contract, the voluntary societies, especially the American Board of Foreign Missions, allowed, to a certain extent, the New Eng- land theology, the new measures in revivals, advo- cated the "elective affinity" Presbyteries rather than those formed by geographical bounds, favored the abolishment of slavery, and claimed a freer con- struction of the constitution of the church. The Old School party opposed the Plan of Union as un- constitutional, and therefore void, desired denomina- tional control of educational and missionary inter- ests, withstood the alleged errors in doctrine vital to the Calvinistic system, rejected the new measures in revivals, favored gradual emancipation, and re- fused to give up the right to examine intrant min- isters. The crisis came in 1837, and was followed by a year of intense excitement in the land. In both bodies were men eminent for ability, scholar- ship, spirituality and devotion to the system of doc- trine which was held in common. The denomina- 8 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. tional property question was decided by the Su- preme Court of Pennsylvania in favor of the Old School body. In Kentucky the division occurred two years later, in 1840. when a New School Synod was formed. In 1846 they reported three Presby- teries, fourteen churches and eleven ministers, and in 1858 the entire Synod returned on honorable terms to the Old School body. In Louisville a New School church was formed at the house of Rev. D. C. Banks, southeast corner of Third and Walnut, by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Cleland, the leader of the New School body in Kentucky, and is mentioned in the city directory of 1843 as worshiping in the city school house. With this exception, there was no division in Louisville, beyond the general affinity of New School sympathizers with the Second Church, and that of the Old School with the First Church. Mr. Banks, Mr. Blackburn, Mr. S. K. Snead and Mr. Sawtell all united with the New School body. The credit of an undivided church in this city is, per- haps, due to the two leading pastors, Drs. Humph- rey and Breckinridge, who unitedly upheld the Old School fidelity to doctrine. Their plea for denom- inational control of educational and missionary in- terests, and their claim as to a necessity of abolish- ing the Plan of Union was successfully prosecuted, while, at the same time, they adopted the New School revival measures and sought to imbibe some- thing of their broad missionary spirit. This is the position of the reunited church of to-day. One phase of this old controversy, that of church con- trol of educational institutions, has recently reap- peared in the relations of the General Assembly to Union Theological Seminary, New York City. CHAPTER II. THE CHURCH FROM 1836 TO 1866. The second period of our history extends from 1836 to 1866. After the destruction of the First Church by fire the congregation worshiped for three years in a building at the northwest corner of Fourth and Green streets. The Fourth Street lot was sold and another, 180x201 feet, on the south- east corner of Sixth and Green streets, purchased for $25,000. A handsome church was erected, cost- ing, with the lot, $66,516, and was dedicated July 21, 1839, the other Presbyterian Churches joining in the interesting services. Dr. Breckinridge preached in the forenoon from the text, "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is Mt. Zion," and at the evening service Dr. Humphrey preached from 1 Cor. 1:24. In May, 1844, the General As- sembly met in the First Presbyterian Church. Rev. Gardner Spring, D. D., of New York City, preached the opening sermon, before a large audience, and Rev. George Junkin, D. D., was elected Moderator. As a result of this meeting there was established in Louisville the Executive Committee of Home Mis- sions, as auxiliary to the Board of Domestic Mis- sions, which conducted the missionary operations of the church in the South and West for nearly twenty years. Rev. Sylvester Scovel, D. D., agent of the board, made his headquarters here. In 1848 the First Church had enrolled over three hundred members. Dr. Breckinridge's health became im- paired in 1 85 1, when he was granted leave of ab- sence for several months, during which the pulpit was supplied by Rev. Jno. A. McClung. After a pastorate of twenty-two years, he resigned in 1858, greatly beloved and honored. His Presbytery had sent him to the General Assembly eight times, an honor conferred on no other member in its history, and the Assembly itself, in 1859, elected him Mod- erator. After a year the congregation elected Rev. Thomas A. Hoyt, D. D., of Abbeyville, S. C, who began his pastoral labors November 5th, 1859. The war came on, and Dr. Hoyt, whose whole pas- torate was disturbed by the political troubles of the country, resigned December, 1864. Rev. Samuel R. Wilson, D. D., was installed March, 1865. This eminent divine had been associated with his father. Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, D. D., in the old historic First Church of Cincinnati from 1842 to 1846, and then served as pastor for fifteen years until 1861. Having, for two years, a charge in New York City, he returned to Kentucky in 1864, took charge of the Mulberry Church, in Shelby County, and, com- ing to the First Church, Louisville, viewed with deep solicitude the approach of the ecclesiastical storm in which he was to take such a prominent part. The ruling elders, during this period — 1836 to 1866 — were: John C. Bayless, 1837-41; Robert Steele, 1837-46; W. J. Dinwiddie, 1839-46; Dr. John R. Moore, 1839-42; Samuel Casseday, 1841- 76; Dr. S. B. Richardson, 1841-59; John W. Ander- son, 1841-61 ; David B. Allen, 1843-49; Lloyd Har- ris, 1843-73; George Gillis, 1848-57; A. A. Casse- day, 1854-72; Curran Pope, 1854-62; S. R. Will- iams, 1855-1859; William Garvin, 1859-68; R. I. Crawford, 1859-74, and J. V. Escott, 1859-92. The Deacons were: R. I. Crawford, 1855-59; J- V. Es- cott, 1855-59; R K - White, 1855-67; Diodate Holt, 1855-66; Patrick Joyes, 1855-67. The Second Church grew rapidly under the minis- try of Dr. Humphrey. A missionary spirit pervaded the congregation, which was made chu°rch U P largely °f New England people. Mr. William Mix and Miss Martha Bliss conducted, in 1840, an interesting work among the colored children, in the basement of the Second Church, and William H. Bulkley, aided by John Homire and Clark Bradley, conducted another Sunday-school, in 1841, at Fifth and York streets. This school developed under the Rev. Mr. Adams, a colored minister, into the flourishing Baptist to THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. School on Fifth Street, between Center and Walnut. In 1842, the Second Church conducted a Bethel Sunday-school, superintended by Mr. L. L. Warren, on the east side of Fifth Street, between Main and the river. This school, in 1846, reported eighty-five scholars and fourteen teachers. In the midst of the activities of church life, during the fall of 1844, the pastor of the Second Church sus- tained a severe affliction in the death of his beloved wife, the daughter of Thomas Prather, Esq. Early in 1846 the Session of the Church granted Mr. Humphrey leave of absence for eight months to visit Europe and seek to restore his impaired health. Mr. Warren, writing under date of March 22d, 1846, says: "Our pastor preached this forenoon and afternoon. At the latter service there was a larger attendance than at the morning, and a solemn service it was. This was his farewell discourse be- fore leaving the church and congregation. To part with our beloved pastor, even for a few months, brought sorrow to many hearts. He remarked that this is the tenth year he has been pastor of the church. He carries with him the good wishes of many friends, and many prayers will be offered for God's blessing to rest upon him, that he may be preserved, his health restored, and that he may be returned, in God's time, to his flock." During Dr. Humphrey's absence, the pulpit was filled, at his re- quest, by Rev. Stuart Robinson, of Kanawha, Va. On November 28th, Dr. Humphrey returned, great- ly improved in health, and entered with renewed zeal upon his pastoral duties. On April 7th, 1847, he married his second wife, Mrs. Martha Pope. In the fall of this year, a most serious difficulty arose in the Second Church, which marks an epoch in the progress of the Presbyterian Church in this city. The entire session and sixty-one communicants, in- cluding many of the wealthiest and most influential of its members, withdrew and formed the Chestnut Street Church. The pastor and his people entered with courage and fidelity upon the work of strength- ening the things that remained. Jabez Baldwin and William Warner were elected elders, and immediate steps were taken to pay off the remaining indebted- ness, incurred two years before in enlarging and re- modeling the church. The following summer, July 25th, 1848, occurred an event of unusual interest to the whole city, the dedication of our Cave Hill Cemetery, on which occasion Dr. Humphrey was selected as the orator of the day. So long as a grateful public shall cher- ish affection for our beautiful "City of the Dead," so long will this address of Dr. Humphrey's rank as one of the most classic productions in the litera- ture of our city. In 1851, the Second Church was honored by having its pastor elected Moderator of the General Assembly at St. Louis. His sermon, entitled "Our Theology," preached at Charleston, S. C, the next year at the opening of the Assembly, was so highly esteemed that it was published by our Board of Publication at Philadelphia, and is con- sidered a splendid presentation of the fruits of Calvinistic theology. It secured Dr. Humphrey's election as successor of Dr. Archibald Alexander in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. This honor he declined, but upon the establishment of the Theological Seminary at Danville, Ky., in 1853, he accepted a call to the Chair of Church history in that institution, and the pastoral relation that had existed for seventeen years was dissolved. During his ministry there had been received into the church four hundred and fifty persons. Rev. J. J. Bullock, D. D., from Lexington, Ky., was called in Septem- ber, 1853, and served the church two years and a half. Resigning in 1856, he resumed charge of his classical school at Walnut Hills, near Lexington, and the church was left without a pastor for over two years. Several distinguished ministers were called but declined the pastorate. In the spring of 1858, Rev. Stuart Robinson, D. D, of the Theo- logical Seminary at Danville, Ky., accepted the charge and was installed pastor. The marked abil- ity of Dr. Robinson put life into the church, and steps were taken at once to remodel the basement and put galleries in the audience room. In the meantime a lot two hundred by two hundred feet, at the northeast corner of Second and College streets, was purchased, on which to erect a new building. It was intended to use the corner lot for the church and reserve one hundred feet for a college, to be a companion to the Female School on Sixth Street. The war came on soon after, and Dr. Robinson retired to Canada. Rev. John C. Young, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Transylvania, sup- plied the pulpit, and was, in 1863, ordained and in- stalled as co-pastor, in which capacity he served the church until Dr. Robinson's return in 1866. The Ruling Elders elected during this period were: William Richardson, 1839-47; L. P. Yan- dell, 1839-47; J- Y- Love, 1839-47; John Milton, 1839-47; Jabez Baldwin, 1847-55; William Warner, 1847-49; J. P. Curtis, 1848-63; Dr. Price, 1848-51; James A. Taylor, 1848-51; William Prather, 1848- 66; Andrew Davidson, 1852-82; John Hardin, M. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 11 D., 1852-64; R. Knott, 1852-66; J. F. Huber, 1852- 56; Dr. J. A. Moore, 1865-78; John Homire, 1865- 66, and j. B. Kinkead, 1865-66. The Deacons were: Geo. H. Cary, 1865; R. A. Watts, 1865-82; J. K. Lemon, 1865-81, and D. R. Young, 1865-75. The Third Church, known as the First Free Church, on account of the free pew system, called, in 1836, the Rev. Joseph T. Russell, T teriJn h 'chu P roh Sby w ' 10 ser ved the church faithfully two years, and subsequently died at Jackson, Miss. He had just made an address at an annual meeting of the Bible Society and was at- tacked with apoplexy, after speaking earnestly for forty minutes. Uttering the words, "Mr. President, I am done," he sat down and died. In 1838 a call was extended to Rev. Joseph Huber, a minister of fine personal appearance and an excellent preacher. The chapel on Tenth Street was removed to the east side of Ninth Street, between Jefferson and Green, and there occupied for five years. Rev. Francis Thornton served the church as a supply in 184 1, and was succeeded by the beloved Rev. David S. Tod. A new brick house of worship was built on the south side of Jefferson Street, fifty feet east of Eighth, and was dedicated to God June 18th, 1843, tne sermon being preached by Rev. Nathan N. Hall, of Lexing- ton. The pastor of this church was aboard the ill- fated "Lucy Walker,"* October 31st, 1844, when she was blown up four miles below New Albany and sixty persons were killed. Mr. Tod had made arrangements at the Theological Seminary in New Albany to have his pulpit supplied, and was on his way to Owensboro to organize a Presbyterian Church when the disaster occurred. The boat had left Louisville on her way to New Orleans, crowded with a gay throng of passengers. Among the killed was the Rev. James McCreary, of Wilcox County, Alabama, and among the wounded were Rev. D. Priesley, of Starkville, Miss., and Rev. James Young, of Dallas, Ala. Rev. Mr. Tod was uninjured. The Third Church, under Mr. Tod's ministry prospered, about one hundred being added to its membership. After his retirement, Rev. W. W. Hill, D. D., supplied the pulpit for a short time, as did Rev. Thomas Bracken, now of Lebanon, Ky., when Rev. Benjamin M. Hobson was installed April 5th, 1847. At the installation service, Rev. James Smith preached the sermon, Rev. W. L. Breckin- ridge, D. D., delivered the charge to the pastor, and Rev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D., the charge to the people. Successful as a pastor, Mr. Hobson re- *"The Presbyterian Herald," October, 1844. ceived into the church over one hundred members during his ministry of six years. Rev. H. H. Cam- bern, of Charleston, Ind., supplied the pulpit from September 13th, 1852, to November 21st, 1853. During this year plans developed for the removal of the church to a better location. The ground rent being regarded as burdensome, the building on Jefferson Street was sold and a new house of wor- ship erected on a lot sixty-five by one hundred feet, at the northeast corner of Walnut and Eleventh streets, conveyed to the trustees October 8, 1853, by Rev. Edward P. Humphrey and wife. The name of the church was changed to the Third, or Walnut Street Presbyterian Church. The congregation en- tered the basement for worship in June, 1854, the upper room being unfinished. On Sunday, August 27th, 1854, a day memorable in the history of this church, a severe cyclone passed over the city, blow- ing down two large warehouses, injuring over fifty residents and demolishing the new church building. Rev. Robert Morrison,* the temporary supplv, was preaching in the basement to a congregation of about eighty people, when suddenly the door was blown open and the room was filled with dust. The roof was blown off, and a crash was heard as the western wall fell inward, crushing the girders which upheld the basement ceiling, and the fearful work of destruction was soon completed. The following fifteen persons were killed and twenty-three badly injured : Mrs. Jane Martin, wife of Elder John N. Martin; Mrs. Janet Wicks, wife of Captain Wm. Wicks; Holmes C. Sweeny, John Godfrey, Mrs. Adaline Vilderbee, her two daughters and a son; Mrs. Sarah Marcell, wife of Elder Jacob Marcell; John C. Broadford and Miss Headley, of the First Church; Mrs. Salisbury, of the Second Church; Mr. Taylor, of the Chestnut Street Church; Mr Royce Davis, of the Second Church, New Albany, and Alexander McClelland, of New York City. The Session adopted the following, in view of the dreadful calamity that had befallen them: "Re- solved, That we cherish the names of the departed as precious and sacred. They were found in the sanctuary of God, in the act of praise and prayer, the most holy acts of obedience to God. Resolved, That we consider this affliction a call of God to greater devotion, zeal and activity in the service of Christ. Resolved, That we return thanks to the other churches and to the whole community for their warm sympathy in our affliction and for sub- stantial assistance rendered in many ways." Elder *"Tbe Presbyterian Herald," August, 1S54. 12 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. B. F. Avery, of the Second Church, and Elder W. C. Brooks, of the Chestnut Street Church, took their membership to the Walnut Street Church, to strengthen their hands. A mass meeting was held in the First Church yard, the city was canvassed, and six thousand dollars were subscribed by a generous public toward rebuilding the ruined sanctuary. Rev. M. R. Miller, D. D., supplied the pulpit from September 22d, 1854, to June 6th, 1855, and was succeeded by the Rev. John H. Rice. The installa- tion took place May 3d, 1856, Rev. W. W. Hill, D. D., preaching the sermon, Rev. J. Leroy Halsey, D. D., delivering the charge to the pastor, and Rev. F. L. Senour the charge to the people. After a pastorate of six years, in which he doubled the membership of the church, Mr. Rice resigned August 29th, 1 861, and became a chaplain in the Confederate Army. His household furniture and library were confiscated by the United States Mar- shal. Rev. William T. McElroy, D. D., a son-in- law of Mr. Samuel Casseday, became pastor in 1862, and remained in charge throughout the war. The Ruling Elders during this period were: T. J. Hackney, 1842-1892; John Martin, 1843-66; War- wick Miller, 1851 ; J. H. Hewitt, 1851-54; Dr. J. R. Todd, 1849-51; W. C. Brooks, 1855-56; D. Mc- Naughton, 1854-56; Joseph Gault, 1856; John Watson, 1856-68; B. F. Avery, 1866, and James A. Leech, 1866. The Fourth Presbyterian Church was organized March 8, 1846. The Dinwiddie Mission, on Han- cock Street, prospered until 1841, church when the frame building was de- stroyed by fire. For several years the lot lay vacant, but as the city grew there was felt a need for a Presbyterian church in the eastern section of the city. At the time of the organization, in 1846, a beautiful custom prevailed of referring questions connected with the progress of the church to a joint meeting of representatives from the Ses- sions of the then existing churches. In accordance with this custom, a committee consisting of Elders W. J. Dinwiddie, L. L. Warren, Jabez Baldwin, Chapman Warner, W. H. Bulkley, I. F. Stone, R. Steele, H. E. Thomas, and John Milton, met and passed favorably on the question as to a new organ- ization. Under the appointment of Presbytery, a commission met March 8th, 1846, in the old Second Church on Third Street. Rev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D., preached the sermon from 1 Tim., 3:13: "The Church of the living God, the pillar and ground, of the truth." The original members were twelve from the First Church : W. J. Dinwiddie, Mrs. Anna Dinwiddie, Mrs. Mary J. Oviatt, Henry E. Mc- Clelland, Mrs. Jane A. McClelland, Mrs. Martha Eubank, Miss Nancy Woolfolk, Robert Steel, Mrs. Arabella Steel, Massena Fontaine, Mrs. Maletta Fontaine, and Miss Elizabeth Dally; eleven from the Second Church: Chapman Warner, Mrs. War- ner, Benjamin Warner, Otis Patten, Isaac F. Stone, Mrs. Laura E. Stone, Lemuel Powell, Mrs. Emily S. Powell, William H. Bulkley, Mrs. Bulkley, and W. A. Hawley; four from the Third Church: Jabez Baldwin, Mrs. Francis Baldwin, Miss Harriet Jose- phine Baldwin, and Mrs. Elizabeth Draper. W. J. Dinwiddie, Robert Steel, and Jabez Baldwin were elected elders and installed. The vacant lot on Hancock Street, formerly occupied by the Din- widdie Church, was available, and accepted as a location.* Efiforts were put forth at once to build a house of worship. Rev. A. E. Thorn and Rev. W. W. Hill, D. D., each served the church a short time, and services were held in Hayes & Cooper's wagon shop, Main and Hancock streets. On August 22d, 1847, Rev. Mason D. Williams was called, and, on June 14th, 1848, ordained and installed pastor. The new church building was completed and dedicated June 16th, 1848, Rev. W. W. Hill, D. D., preaching the sermon. The following summer Mrs. Eubank was engaged to have charge of the parochial school in the congregation. Mr. Williams was a faithful minister, going about, like his Master, doing good, visiting the people in their homes and workshops. In April, 1852, Mr. Williams died in office and was buried in New Albany, where he had married his wife. During his pastorate the church sustained March 22, 1849, a great loss in the death of Elder Massena Fontaine, a grandson of old Captain Aaron Fontaine, to whose memory is recorded a beautiful tribute in the Session's minutes. Rev. Adam Harris was pastor in 1853 and died in office. He was suc- ceeded by Rev. J. F. Coons in 1854. and shortly after by Rev. Robert Morrison. Rev. F. Leroy Senour, a genial spirit, became pastor in May, 1855. The church work prospered under his seven years' minis- try, and the Sunday-school increased from one hun- dred to two hundred and thirty. The war coming on, Mr. Senour, finding the church divided in senti- ment, retired from the field. He was elected chap- lain of Colonel Boone's regiment, to whom he preached a sermon at Muldraugh's Hill, entitled •The title to this property was traced through the courtesy of the Kentucky Title Company. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. "The Christian Soldier," which was published by the Board of Publication and circulated in the army and navy. The church was vacant until 1865, when Rev. D. C. Crow supplied the pulpit for a short time, and was succeeded by Rev. Robert Morrison. Prominent in this congregation were J. P. Young, Trustee; Hugh and Edward Hays, and S. M. Mer- win. The Elders since the organization have been W. J. Dinwiddle, 1846; Robert Steele, 1846-52; jabez Baldwin, 1846-47; Massena Fontaine, 1848- 49; Isaac F. Stone, 1848-61; W. B. Beatty, 1848; Otis Patten, 1851-61; William Lackey, 1851; Mat- thew Hunter, 1851; M. Sturges, 1857; Clark Brad- ley, 1854-67; J. F. Dryden, 1854; W. A. Porter, 1856; W. H. Robinson, 1856; J. J. Harbison, 1858; and the Deacons: John D. Taggart, 1858-63; Benjamin Rankin, 1858; Thomas B. Hays, J. F. Huber, and Jos. Watson. The Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church was or- ganized October 31st, 1847. There were sixty-five chestnut street members enrolled, consisting of the Presbyterian following persons and their wives: church. William Richardson, W. A. Rich- ardson, L. P. Yandell, J. Y. Love, A. A. Gordon, John Milton, W. H. Bulkley, Willis Ranney, E. G. McGinnis, A. B. Semple, John Semple, John Muir, A. P. Starbird, James M. Lincoln, Alexander Harbi- son, and L. L. Warren, together with W. S. Vernon, D. S. Vernon, G. Talbot Vernon, D. Fetter, Newton Milton, J. N. Carter, James Todd, Lewis Ruffner, Mr. Miller, Mrs. A. Lintner, Mrs. M. Belknap, Mrs. G. Merryweather, Mrs. M. O. Fry, Mrs. R. Hughes, Mr. Butler, Miss C. Richardson, Miss Ann Milton, Miss A. N. Vernon, Miss M. Ruffner, Miss S. A. Ruffner, Miss Julia Ruffner, Miss F. B. Fry, Miss Mary Lintner, Miss Margaret Lintner, Miss Nancy S. Snead, Mrs. M. A. Dewolf, Miss McComb, Miss Dawing, Mr. Catterry, Mrs. A. H. Wallace, Miss Caroline Wallace, and Mr. Harbison. William Richardson, W. S. Vernon and L. P. Yandell were installed elders. A lot, one hundred and five feet by one hundred and eighty, on the southwest cor- ner of Fourth and Chestnut streets, was purchased for six thousand two hundred and seventy-five dol- lars. Through the courtesy of the Sessions of the First Church, services were held at Sixth and Green streets, on Sabbath afternoon, until December 26th, 1847, when the lecture room on "Fourth Cross Street, between Chestnut and Prather," was dedi- cated. The latter street, afterward called Broad- way, was the southern limit of the city, there being at this time but few houses beyond Chestnut Street. The Sunday-school was held in the school building of Rev. H. H. Young, on the south side of Green Street, between Third and Fourth, on the present site of the old Custom House. Rev. Leroy J. Halsey, of Jackson, Miss., was elected pastor January 2d, 1848, and, taking charge of the church the following summer, was in- stalled November 2d. The church building, on the corner of Fourth and Chestnut, was completed and dedicated February 17th, 1850. Dr. Halsey preached in the forenoon from the text: "One thing have 1 desired of the Lord, that I might dwell in the House of the Lord forever," and elaborated with his peculiar fervor, pathos and imagery the theme, "The House of God an object of affection to be- lievers." In the afternoon, Rev. W. C. Matthews, D. D., preached from Psalm 84:1, and in the even- ing, Rev. Robert J. Breckenridge, D. D., gave a clear, logical and masterly presentation of the great benefit derived by mankind from the establishment of a Christian church. The main building was built of brick, in the Grecian style of architecture, with a portico projecting from the front wall eight feet, supported by six large columns, their bases resting on a platform which extended, with the steps, across the entire front. The vestibule was six- teen feet square, and the gallery extended across the whole north end of the building, sixteen feet wide. The pulpit was a platform recessed five feet in the back wall, and was furnished with columns and entablature representing the entrance to a temple. The main room was eighty-eight feet by fifty-eight, w ith three aisles and one hundred and thirty-eight pews, furnishing comfortable seats for six hundred and fifty persons, besides those in the gallery. The steeple had four sections above the roof, surmounted by a spire sixty feet high, making the height from the ground one hundred and eighty feet, and was the only part of the building uncompleted. Dr. Hal- sey's pastorate extended over eleven years, and was marked by earnest, faithful and efficient work. The number of families increased from forty to one hun- dred and twenty, and the membership from sixty to two hundred. Early in Mr. Halsey 's ministry, the use of instrumental music in public worship was commenced after much controversy. A lady mem- ber of the church, writing to her husband in the East, says: "An organ has been placed in the church. They say it will not be used during service, but is intended only for choir practice." There was also a discussion, at this time, as to a bell for the tower on the church, but the steeple having been injured It THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. by the cyclone which demolished the Walnut Street Church was taken down and the subject of the bell was indefinitely postponed. The missionary spirit that had marked the Second Church pervaded the Chestnut Street Church. On March 26th, 1848, a mission Sunday-school, called the Wayside Sunday- school, was opened on Fifth Street, between Main and the river, conducted by Messrs. Harbison, Bulk- ley, Homire, Fonda, Warren and others. This use- ful school continued in operation for six years, and was succeeded by the Duffield School at Sixth and the river. In 1854, a work of grace followed the preaching of Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, of Lexington, in the Chestnut Street Church, and some forty per- sons confessed Christ and were received into the church. During the latter part of Dr. Halsey's min- istry, his health failed, and he resigned the pastoral charge April 8th, 1859. As a pastor, Dr. Halsey was faithful, and as a preacher always instructive. He brought to the pulpit literary culture and a re- fined taste, which enabled him to present the truth in attractive form. The substance of such works as his "Life Pictures" and "Literary Attractions of the Bible" was first heard by his congregation at the old Chestnut Street Church. He was elected, May, 1859, Professor of Pastoral Theology in the North- western Theological Seminary at Chicago, which position he has now occupied for thirty-seven years. Rev. John L. McKee, of Columbia, Ky., was called in the summer of 1859, and installed Septem- ber 5th, i860. His pastorate extended over a period of eleven years, and his ministry left an im- pression on the church that is felt to this day. His settlement was soon followed by the opening of the war, and during these trying times, the Chestnut Street Church, under his administration, attained a position of commanding influence in the city. On January 23d, 1863, the Presbyterian Church in this city lost one of its most valued and honored mem- bers, Mr. William Richardson. This useful man was one of the first elders of the Chestnut Street Church, and had served in this office with promin- ence for twenty-four years. He came to the city from Lexington, Ky., although originally from Bos- ton, Mass. His second wife was the widow of Dr. Lindsey, of Nashville, formerly Miss Silliman, and one of the original members of the First Church. In his death the church courts lost a wise and ju- dicious member, and the Bible Society, the Mission- ary Boards, the cause of education, and the Sabbath schools lost a staunch friend. Occupying a position as President of the Northern Bank, he was well known in financial circles and highly esteemed among business men, as he was honored and re- spected in the church. Mr. Richardson originated in this section the New Year Sunrise Prayer Meet- ing, now popular in all our Presbyterian churches. The elders elected since the organization were John Milton, 1853; W. H. Bulkley, 1853; W. C. Brooks, 1853-54; John W. G. Simrall, 1853; L - L - Warren, 1859-84; A. Harbison, 1859; John G. Bar- ret, 1859, and John A. Miller, 1863. The deacons were: R. M. Cunningham, 1861; John A. Miller, 1861-63; George Harbison, 1861; Lawrence Rich- ardson, 1861-67. The trustees were: Willis Ran- ney, 1847; Lewis Ruffner, 1847; A - p - Starbird, 1847-59; J onn Muir, 1847; John B. Semple, 1847- 53; A. A. Gordon, 1853; L. L. Warren, 1854; J. M. Carter, 1854; S. S. Moody, 1854; R. Montgomery, 1854; A. B. Semple, 1859; Thomas L. Carter, i860; A. Craig, 1862; R. H. Woolfolk, 1862; Henry Burk- hardt, 1864; Robert Murrell, 1864. The Portland Avenue Presbyterian Church* was organized September 1, 1855, by a committee ap- pointed by the Presbytery of Louis- portiand ville, consisting of representatives Church. ' r . ., from the various sessions in the city. The committee were: Rev. W. L. Breckin- ridge, D.D., Rev. W. W. Hill, D.D., Rev. F. L. Senour, and Elders Curran Pope, William Prather, J. W. G. Simrall, H. E. Tunstall and Otis Patten. The committee met at Plumer's storeroom in Port- land, and after a sermon by Rev. Dr. Hill from Psalm 137, the following persons presented letters: Mrs. Jane McCulloch, Miss Mary McCulloch, Miss Hec- torina McCulloch, from the First Church; Mrs. Elizabeth Dick, from the Walnut Street Church; Mrs. Duckwall, from the First Church, New Albany; and Mr. Boles, from Springfield, Ohio. Mr. W. A. Boles and Mrs. M. McKnight were received on pro- fession of faith. These eight persons were then or- ganized into the Portland Avenue Presbyterian Church. Subsequently, March 30, 1857, Mr. Joseph Irwin was elected elder, and Mr. Newton Boles dea- con. Steps were taken at once to erect a house of worship at Thirty-third Street and Portland Avenue. Rev. R. Morrison preached for the congregation some time, when the first pastor, Rev. A. A. E. Tay- lor, took charge September, 1857, and was ordained and installed May 6, 1858. Rev. Stuart Robinson, D. D., preached the sermon; Rev. Dr. Hill delivered the charge to the pastor, and Rev. Moses G. Knight *Rev. J. H. Morrison's "Sketch of the Portland Avenue Church." THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 15 the charge to the people. The church had acces- sions constantly during Mr. Taylor's ministry. On September 19, 1859, the pastoral relation was re- solved, and Rev. Edward Wurts, son of Mr. Daniel Wurts, one of the original ciders in the First Church, became pastor in December, 1859, and remained during the unsettled period of the war. Rev. W. W. Duncan became stated supply in August, 1865. The ruling elders were: Joseph Irwin, 1857-1884; Daniel McCulloch, 1861 ; Prof. Hiram Roberts, 1861-69. The deacons were: N. Boles, 1855-57; W. H. Troxell, 1861-69; Joseph P. Gheens, 1861- 67. The trustees were Daniel McCulloch, 1855; John Graham, 1855; Joseph Irwin, 1855-84; Dr. G. H. Walling, 1855; N. Boles, 1855-57' Thus are we brought to the close of the second period of our narrative, with six churches and a total membership of twelve hundred and seventy- nine, distributed as follows: Second Church, 356; Chestnut Street Church, 334; First Church, 285; Fourth Church, 140; Walnut Street Church, m; Portland Avenue Church, 83. These churches had together received into their communion during these formative years 3,555 members. Before entering the third period of our history we desire to take a brief survey of the prominent characteristics of the denomination and the constituent elements of our local organization. During the past fifty years of its growth the Presbyterian Church of Louisville has been true to the historic interests of that branch of the Christian church with which it stands connected. Upholding the headship of Christ and declaring the Word of God to be its "only rule of faith and practice," the Presbyterian church has been marked, first, by its doctrinal teachings. It maintains the Calvinistic system of revealed truth, known as the Augustinian, or Pauline theology. This system, most clearly and comprehensively set forth in the Westminster standards, has been held prominently before the religious republic in the preaching of an able ministry. Second, it has been marked by its polity, that of the government of the eldership, which gives distinctive names to the de- nomination. The government of the church is com- mitted to presbyters, or elders, consisting of teach- ing and ruling elders. The ministry of the Word is sustained by an eminently useful lay element, as seen in the long line of prominent ruling elders who have served the church. Third, it recognizes but Denominational Characteristics. two orders of church officers, the first consisting of elders, which embrace teaching and ruling elders, the second of deacons, having charge, in accordance with Acts vi., 1-8, of the poor fund, and also of the temporal affairs of the church. These officers are required to subscribe to the confession of faith. Membership in the church is based, not on sub- scription to the standards, but on a credible faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Fourth, it maintains a parity of the clergy and recognizes the ruling elder as holding an office designated by the very terms which the Scriptures apply to the teaching elders, and that both are entitled to equal authority in all the courts of the church, the words bishop and elder being used interchangeably. This is a distinctive principle of Presbyterianism, and one that is gain- ing favor in other communions. Fifth, it has a rep- resentative government. Its courts are composed of presbyters, elders who "rule only, and those who rule and also labor in word and doctrine." This co- ordinate jurisdiction affords the best security against ministerial domination, on the one hand, and popu- lar prejudice on the other. Sixth, it is marked by the unity of its representative assemblies, its ses- sions, presbyteries, synods and general assemblies. These constitute a bond which brings all its parts together and gives to the church a property of in- definite expansion. Collateral with these character- istics, the church has maintained, thirdly, an edu- cated ministry, and has been the friend of higher education. It is an interesting fact that the Presby- terian Church of Louisville, previous to 1866, sent to the presidency of Center College, Danville, Ken- tucky, Rev. Gideon Blackburn, D.D.; to the presi- dency of Oakland College, Mississippi, Rev. W. L. Breckinridge, D.D.; to the Theological Seminary, Danville, Kentucky, the Rev. E. P. Humphrev, D. D.; and called from that institution Rev. Stuart Rob- inson, D. D. It sent to the presidency of Austin College, Texas, Rev. A. E. Thorn ; to the presidency of Hanover College, Indiana, Rev. Sylvester Scovel, D.D.; and to a professorship in the same institu- tion, Rev. H. H. Young; to the presidency of Wor- cester University, Ohio, Rev. A. A. E. Taylor; to the presidency of Sayre Female Institute of Lex- ington, Kentucky, Prof. S. R. Williams; to the Theological Seminary of the Northwest at Chicago, Rev. J. Leroy Halsey, D.D.; and called from the Theological Seminary of New Albany, Rev. M. R. Miller, D.D. Rev. E. N. Sawtell, D.D., on his re- turn from France, became principal of the Cleve- land Female Seminary, and Rev. W. W. Hill, D.D., 10 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. became principal of Bellewood Female Seminary at Anchorage, Kentucky. In the early period of our history, Rev. James Vance conducted an academy on Beat-grass, in which Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, D.D., of Cincinnati, received his classical education, as did Rev. J. J. Bullock, D.D., who became superin- tendent of public instruction in Kentucky and chap- lain of the United States Senate. Of special inter- est to the Presbyterians of this city was the estab- lishment here of two prominent institutions, both of which were destroyed by the war, namely, the Presbyterian Female School, on Sixth Street, so ably conducted by Professors Williams and Barton: and the Presbyterian University, established in 1859, of which Dr. Robinson was president and Dr. Mc- Kee and Dr. Hoyt were vice-presidents. Professors Schenck, Hamilton and Harney, together with Drs. Robinson, Hoyt and J. L. McKee, taught for two years, and the institution had progressed so far as to have laid the foundation of its buildings on Second and College streets. Among the students sent out were Rev. Robert Holland of St. Louis; Rev. Albert Keigwin of Wilmington, Delaware, and Rev. Thomas Tracy of India. Fourth, it has been marked by an evangelistic spirit. The Presbyterian church emphasizes the headship of Christ, and main- tains the Bible as its constitution. It seeks to lead men to the Savior of mankind, and brings every doctrine and practice to the test of His written Word. The spirit with which these cardinal teachings is sustained is thoroughly evangelistic in character. The first Presbyterian minister in this city was a missionary, Rev. Mr. Banks, as were Drs. Black- " burn, Smith and Sawtell. The establishment of the Executive Committee of Domestic Missions in this city for twenty years evidences this spirit, and the frequency of revivals in all our churches attests the readiness of pastors and people to co-operate in evangelistic efforts. Fifth. It has been public spirit- ed and charitable. Side by side with our Episcopal, Methodist, Baptist and other brethren, the Presby- terian church has, with a liberal hand, promoted the interests of the Bible Society, the Tract Society, the American Sunday School Union and the various public institutions of the city. As we survey the past fifty years there have ap- peared several elements molding the character of the church and gradually blending into the forma- tion of the church of to-day. We are first indebted to the Scotch and Irish, who laid the foundation of the church in this city, many of whom were from Virginia. That uncompromising, liberty-loving people are represented in the McFarlands, McNutts, Carys, Tunstalls, Fetters and Hughes of the origi- nal organization, together with their successors, the families of Samuel Casseday, William Garvin, Alex- ander Harbison, W. J. Dinwiddie, Rev. H. H. Young, J. Gault, J. W. Anderson, J. Watson, Rev. Stuart Robinson, John Graham, D. McNaughton, Rev. W. C. and John D. Matthews, Daniel McCul- lough, Andrew and James Davidson, Donald Mac- Pherson, John D. Taggart and others. Nor are we less indebted to our New England Presbyterians, that splendid church and school-loving people, whose thrift and energy have entered so largely into our commercial prosperity. Rhode Island sent us the Vernons and Kings, Vermont the talented Dan- iel Smith, New Hampshire E. N. Sawtell and Joseph Danforth, Massachusetts L. L. Warren, J. P. Curtis and William Richardson, Maine Chapman Warner, Otis Patten and A. B. Starbird, and Connecticut Daniel C. Banks, Edward P. Humphrey, Isaac F. Stone, Clark Bradley, W. H. Bulkley, A. A. Wheel- er, W. C. Nones and others. To these elements should be added another that has entered largely into our church life, namely, the German, represented by such men as Jacob and Paul Reinhard, Stephen Beers, Jacob Birkenmire. Dr. Charles Fishback, Dr. Henry Miller, Rev. Joseph and James F. Huber, and John Homire, a native Prussian. The English contributed those noble specimens of manly elders, Edgar Needham, J. V. Escott and George W. Morris; the Dutch are recognized in the Van Buskirks, the Welsh in the Aliens and the Gwathmeys, and the French in the Fontaines, Bullitts, Marcells, Rev. E. N. Sawtell, and Rev. F. Leroy Senour. Grafting these into our native stock, the Popes, Prestons, Breckinridges, Joyes, Wilsons, Thurstons, Prices, Speeds, Mc- Dowells, Ballards, Lemons, Miltons, Butlers, Shorts, Kinkeads, Harlans, Boyles, Bristows, Barretts and others, we obtained true-born Kentucky Presby- terians. An English writer says: "A true-born Englishman's a contradiction; In speech, an irony; in fact, a fiction; A metaphor invented to express A man akin to all the world." And so we have produced in our church in this city "true-born" Presbyterians, who love our institutions, our doctrines, our polity, and who unite us to the great Pan-Presbyterian family of the Reformed churches throughout the world, holding the Calvin- istic system. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 17 As we enter the last period of our history we must briefly consider the causes that led to the division of 1886. The Civil War with its - jjj" political animosities, proved a bane- ful source of disturbance to our be- loved church in this city. It was hoped by many, both North and South, that the great re- ligious body with which this church stood con- nected might be able to maintain its integrity not- withstanding the serious issue raised by the war. But political separations usually involve eccle- siastical divisions, and so it proved here. The immediate occasion of the disruption in the Synod of Kentucky in 1866 was the action taken by the General Assembly of St. Louis with reference to the Presbytery of Louisville, which had adopted Sep- tember 2, 1865, a paper styled "The Declaration and Testimony against the erroneous and heretical doc- trines and practices which have obtained and been propagated in the Presbyterian Church in the United States during the last five years." This celebrated document, the original of which is now in the library of Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, was written by Rev. Samuel R. Wilson, D.D., pas- tor of the First Church in this city, and was issued after the example of the equally celebrated "Act and Testimony," published by Rev. Robert J. Breck- inridge, D.D., in 1835, during the new school con- troversy. It is a lengthy document of twenty-seven octavo pages, and can only be appreciated by a brief consideration of the heated discussion which resulted in its publication. During the summer of 1 861, the old school Presbyterian church was divid- ed into two branches, popularly known as the North- ern and Southern. The causes which led to this division were deep seated and had their root in the great questions that led up to the Civil War. States rights and slavery had agitated the country from the beginning, and now the moral and religious as- pects of these great questions seriously disturbed the church. The relation of the church to the institu- tion of slavery had always been a vexed question, and the relation of the church to the State involved the question of the allegiance of the Christian citi- zens to the Federal Government. The introduc- tion of these questions into the church was brought about by what were known as "Deliverances," is- sued, from time to time, by the General Assembly. The Presbyterian church has always recognized its duty to mold public sentiment on moral questions, to witness against evil in every and any form, while at the same time it maintains, as one of its cardinal principles, the right of private judgment. Steadfast- ly withstanding any terms of communion, not found in the Word of God, it yet seeks to formulate the Christian consciousness of the age. By reason ol this unique pastoral care the Assembly, as the high- est court of the church, is accustomed to issue, from time to time, deliverances on the great moral ques- tions of the day. Such deliverances as those against duelling, gambling, intemperance, and kindred sub- jects, are found on all the pages of its history. In 1861 the subject of loyalty to the Government was presented to the General Assembly at Philadel- phia in the celebrated Spring resolutions. It was a time of great excitement. Fort Sumter had just been fired upon and men were aroused to an intense state of excitement. These resolutions, introduced by one of the most conservative of men, Rev. Gard- ner Spring, D.D., of New York City, provided for a day of fasting and prayer to God that he would avert the calamity of war, and in a spirit of Christian patriotism pledged the church with loyalty to the Federal Government. After a heated discussion the resolutions were adopted by a vote of 156 to 66, the Southern members having but a small representa- tion. A protest was offered by Dr. Charles Hodge, signed by fifty-eight persons, among whom were L. L. Warren, the representative of the Presbytery of Louisville, and all the commissioners of the State of Kentucky. The protest acknowledged loyalty to the Government to be a moral and religious duty, according to the Word of God, which requires us to be subject to the powers that be, as ordained of God, and admitted the right of the Assembly to re- quire this and all like duties of the ministers and members under its charge, but they said "we deny the right of the General Assembly to decide the po- litical question to what government the allegiance of Presbyterians as citizens is due, and its right to make that decision a condition of membership in the church." They claimed that many of their breth- ren, living in the Southern States, conscientiously believed that the allegiance of the citizen was pri- marily due to the State. "The Assembly," they said, "in deciding a political question, has, in our judg- ment, violated the constitution of the church and usurped the prerogative of the Divine Master." The Assembly replied: "Strictly speaking, we have not decided to what government the allegiance of Pres- byterians as citizens is due. Our organization, as a General Assembly, was contemporaneous with that of the Federal Government. In the seventy-four years of our existence Presbyterians have known but 18 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. one supreme government, and we know no other now. No nation on earth recognizes the existence of two independent sovereigns within these United States." With reference to the terms of communion, the Assembly replied: "The terms of Christian fel- lowship are laid down in the Word of God and are embodied in our standards. It is competent to this court to interpret and apply the doctrines of the Word, to warn men against prevailing sins, and urge the performance of neglected duties. We re- gard the action against which these protests are levelled simply as a faithful declaration of the Assem- bly of Christian duty toward those in authority over us, which adds nothing to the terms of communion, already recognized. Surely the idea of the obligation of loyalty to our Federal Government is no new thing to Presbyterians." There was no question between the Protestants and the Assembly as to the church's intermeddling with political affairs, the only issue being one of fact as to whether the act in question was political. Nor was there a question as to the judgment of the Assembly, but simply whether the Assembly, as a spiritual court, had a right to pronounce any judgment at all on the sub- ject. The Southern Presbyterians generally denied this right. In fact, they protested against the intro- duction into the discussions of the Assembly of any of the questions connected with slavery and loyalty, or of the relations of the church to the civil govern- ment. During the summer and autumn of 1861 many of the Presbyteries in the Southern States adopted resolutions renouncing the authority of the General Assembly, and a convention met Decem- ber 4, 1861, at Augusta, Ga., and formed "The Pres- byterian Church in the Confederate States of Amer- ica." With reference to the burning question of slavery two facts stand out conspicuously in all the history; first, the General Assembly uniformly condemned the system, and, secondly, it uniformly allowed the institution a place in its communion. These facts are brought out in the two prominent deliverances of 1818 and 1845. The seeming contradiction be- tween these two deliverances disappears when we consider that the one paper affirms that the system of slaver)-, with its laws and usages andabuses, which had grown up, was an evil which should be abol- ished, and the other holds that the relation of master and slave was not necessarily sinful. Perhaps the most objectionable of the Assembly's deliverances during this trying period was that of 1865. Previous to this all of these deliverances had been of a declarative nature. The law of the Pres- byterian church recognizes two broadly distin- guished functions, those of instruction and of gov- ernment. As a teacher, the highest court of the church interprets revealed truth, but does not claim infallibility, for the Confession of Faith expressly says "all synods and councils may err and have erred." Nor does it bind the conscience. Every member of the church is bound to exercise private judgment and decide for himself, whether the deliv- erance is in accordance with the Word of God. This is a fundamental principle of Presbyterianism. But there is another function equally well recog- nized, that of government. In 1865 the Assembly felt called upon to exercise this Deliverance , .. ™ , , ,„._ function. 1 he war was over, slav- of I860. ery had been abolished, the sover- eignty of the Federal Government maintained, and the Sun of Peace had resumed his genial reign over our undivided land. But in the border States an unexpected emergency arose. Persons absent during the war were returning in large numbers to their homes, and the question of church control be- came one of absorbing and anxious concern. To meet this emergency the Assembly was sailed upon to exercise the power of government and require Church Sessions, Presbyteries and Synods to exam- ine applicants for admission from the South into bodies under their care upon the subject of loyalty and freedom. If the several deliverances of the As- sembly on slavery and loyalty had given offense to the Presbyterians of the South this was peculiarly exasperating. Having protested against these de- liverances from year to year, the Presbytery of Louisville adopted at Bardstown September 2, 1865, the celebrated Declaration and Testimony. With all the ability of its learned author, this paper pleads eloquently for the Crown Rights of Zion's King, but the severity of its language, its charge of apos- tasy against the church, its condemnation of prin- ciples and practices, coeval with the origin of the Presbyterian church, especially its avowed purpose to reform or withdraw, aroused the church to grave apprehensions. So great was the alarm a step was resorted to that could be justified only by an extra- ordinary emergency, a convention was called by those approving the acts of the Assembly to meet at St. Louis and sit side by side with the constitu- tional assembly of the church, with the avowed pur- pose of influencing its course of action. The pres- ence of over one hundred ministers and elders at this convention evinced the fact that there was great THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 19 anxiety throughout the church as to the effect of the Declaration and Testimony. It was felt by the church generally that the question had passed be- yond an issue in which men equally honest differed, and had become one of vital discipline. It was feared that the movement might be widespread, and therefore heroic measures were adopted. The As- sembly, at St. Louis, in 1866, condemned the Decla- ration and Testimony ''as a slander against the church, schismatical in its character and aims, and its adoption by any of our church courts as an act of rebellion against the authority of the General Assembly."* It has been claimed that the author and signers of this document did not contemplate separation, but this their language seemed to imply: "We will not abandon the effort until we shall cither have succeeded in reforming the church and restor- ing her tarnished glory, or, failing in this, necessity shall be laid upon us, in obedience to the Apostolic commands, to withdraw from those who have de- parted from the truth." Notwithstanding the earnest protest of such men as Dr. Boardman of Philadelphia, and Dr. Van Dyke of New York, the Assembly dealt summarily with the Presbytery of Louisville, dissolving the body and summoning the signers of the Declaration and Testimony to appear before the court. It forbade them to sit in any court above the Session, and de- clared that any Presbytery or Synod which ad- mitted them to sit to be, ipso facto, dissolved. Those who, in such cases, obeyed the authority of the As- sembly were declared to be the true Presbytery and Synod. Whatever may be said as to the character of previous acts and deliverances of the (leneral As- sembly, the judgment pronounced against the Pres- bytery of Louisville, as a court, was strictly ecclesias- tical, and condemned and dealt with what the As- sembly declared to be insubordination on the part of the lower court against the lawful authority of the highest court of the church. During the discus- sion the commissioners from the Presbytery of Louisville, Dr. Stuart Robinson, Dr. Samuel R. Wil- son, Hon. Charles A. Wickliffe and Mark Hardin, Esq., were suspended from their privilege as mem- bers of the body, under the following resolution : ''That until the Assembly shall have examined and decided upon the conduct of said Presbytery, the commissioners therefrom shall not be entitled to seats in this body," and upon the adoption of the report of the committee appointed to examine into the facts connected with the proceedings of the Louisville Presbytery, their recommendation was adopted, "That, on the hearing of the matter pre- sented by this report, the commissioners from the Presbytery of Louisville to this Assembly be heard, subject to the rules of order which govern the house."* Tlie members of the Presbytery thus sus- pended withdrew from the court and returned to their homes. At the meeting of the Synod of Kentucky at Hen- derson, in October, 1866, this issue ran the plow- share of division through our beloved church in Kentucky, part maintaining, for a while, an inde- pendent position, and then uniting with the South- ern General Assembly, and part remaining with the old Assembly. The property question in this city, at first local in its nature, was taken to the civil courts in the cele- brated Walnut Street Church case. A maioritv of the members of this Question. 1 church concurred with the Assem- bly, while Messrs. Watson and Gault, as ruling eld- ers, and Messrs. Farley and Fulton, as trustees, con- stituting in each case a majority of the Session and trustees, desired to retain Mr. McElroy as pas- tor, whose sympathy was with the party of the Decla- ration and Testimony. This led to efforts by each party to gain control of the property. The case was brought before the Synod of Kentucky, and that body, by a commission, called a congregational meeting, at which there were elected three addi- tional elders. Messrs. Gault and Watson and Messrs. Farley and Fulton refused to recognize them as members of the Session, and hence the suit. Tin- decision of the Louisville chancellor, which turned exclusively on this question, was that "Messrs. Avery, McNaughton and Leech, together with Messrs. Hackney, Watson and Gault, were ruling elders, constituting the Session of said church, and that the management of the property of said church, for the purpose of worship and other religious ser- vices, was committed to their care, under the regula- tions of the Presbyterian Church." This decree of the chancellor was reversed by the Court of Ap- peals of Kentucky in the case of Watson vs. Avery, 2 Bush's Reports, 332. But in the case of Watson vs. Jones, 15 Wallace's Reports, 679, the Supreme Court of the United States sustained the decision. One of the questions involved in the litigation was whether it is competent for the courts of law in this country to set aside or reverse a decision of our church courts in matters that are purely ecclesiastical. The Supreme ♦General Assembly Minutes, 1866, p. 60 •General Assembly Minutes, 1866, p. 40. I'll THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. Court at Washington upheld the rights of property asserted by the Walnut Street Church and sustained the General Assembly in its claim "that courts of law must accept as final and conclusive the decisions of the General Assembly on questions purely ecclesiastical, and must give full effect to these deci- sions in settling the property rights of parties liti- gant."* Repeated efforts had been made to reunite the two branches of the Presbyterian church. They have each declared that "the deliverances made in peculiar times and under excitement are null and void," and have each expressed confidence in the *Moore's "Presbyterian Digest," p. 251. soundness of doctrine and Christian character of the other. They have each said "in order to show our disposition to remove on our part all real or seeming hindrances to friendly feeling, the Assembly ex- plicitly declares that, while condemning certain acts and deliverances of the other Assembly, no act or deliverance of our Assembly, or of the historic bod- ies of which this Assembly is the successor, are to be construed as impugning, in any way, the Chris- tian character of the other Assembly." Many in both branches of the church long to see the day when these two great bodies, with a common herit- age, shall be united on the basis of the common standards, and, together, seek the advancement of the Redeemer's Kingdom. CHAPTER III. THE CHURCH FROM 1866 TO 1896. BY REV. EDWARD L. WARREN, D. D. After the division of 1866 the history naturally divides itself into two branches, the Northern and Southern. The following churches, popularly known as Southern churches, are connected ecclesiastically with the Presbytery of Louisville, the Synod of Kentucky and the General Assembly of the Presby- terian Church in the United States.* The First Church, with Dr. Wilson, after the division of 1866, remained with the Synod in an independent position until 1868, First church, when they united with the Southern General Assembly. In connection with a member of the session of this church there occurred during this year, on the night of the 4th of December, one of those mysterious providences which occasionally shock an entire community, the collision and destruction by fire of the "America" and the "United States," on the Ohio River, a few miles above Warsaw, Kentucky. Among those who were lost on the "United States" was William Garvin, an elder in the First Church and one of Louisville's noblest citizens. He had been, for forty years, a consistent member of this church and a liberal contributor toward.its support. His body was found in the hull of the steamer, and, though it had been touched by fire, his counten- ance bore its usual serene expression. The funeral took place in the First Church, before a vast gath- ering of mourning citizens. Dr. Samuel R. Wil- son's discourse was a masterpiece of its kind. It was deeply impressive as with glowing imagination the speaker described the scene of that ill-starred *The nine Southern churches belong to the Presbytery of Louisville, with 37 ministers, 45 churches, 4,966 com- municants; to the Synod of Kentucky, with 109 min- isters, 181 churches, 19,302 communicants; and to the General Assembly, with 1,337 ministers, 2,776 churches, 203,999 communicants, contributing last year the sum total of $1,880,126. night and, delineating the character of the well- known, white-haired servant of God, sought "To assert eternal Providence, And jusify the ways of God to men." In 1870 the First Church established a mission on the south side of Chestnut Street, near Sixteenth, where they erected a church building at a cost of $9,000. Here they carried on the work for three years, under the care of Rev. D. A. Plank, now of Mobile, and Rev. Charles L. Hoguc, now of Mem- phis, Tenn. At the request of the session, the Pres- bytery of Louisville organized, August 4, 1873, the West Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church, the commission consisting of Dr. Yandell, Rev. J. J. Cook, and Messrs. J. V. Escott and J. Gault. There were thirteen communicants enrolled. Messrs. J. Steele and D. H. Mathis were elected elders, and Messrs. J. Breeding and George Crawford deacons. In the summer of 1874 certain differences arose be- tween the pastor of the First Church and seven of the ten elders, which was carried to the Presbytery of Louisville, thence to the Southern General As- sembly of the Presbyterian Church, and finally re- sulted in a division into two bodies, each claiming to be the First Presbyterian Church. This led to a suit for the property, which was decided by Special Chancellor Judge Duvall in favor of Dr. Wilson's party. The elders adhering to Dr. Wilson were R. I. Crawford, L. L. Anderson and William Lind- sey. This decision was reversed by the Court of Appeals, October 19, 1878, the court maintaining "that the title to the property of a divided church is in that part of it which is acting in harmony with its own fundamental laws." It seems that the seven elders, Samuel Casseday, Patrick Joyes, N. D. Hun- ter, J. C. Allen, W. L. Clarke, R. K. White and J. V. Escott, and their families, had received letters of dismission, which were soon after returned. The remaining session, refusing to receive these letters, THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. . \ve.fc tlirerted, by Presbytery, to receive them, and the seven, e.lders were directed to resume their offices in the session. The court held that the seven eld- ers and their families were, by returning their let- ters, restored to membership, and the elders to their office. In the meantime, some difference between Dr. Wilson and his Presbytery led the former to renounce the authority of the latter. The court held in this connection that Dr. Wilson and his friends, having renounced the authority of the Presbytery, had thereby made themselves a new and independent organization, and having no connec- tion with a Presbytery, were not, according to the laws of the church, entitled under the deed to nold the property, and, therefore, the title was vested in the party with the seven elders. After the division of 1874 the Seventh and Chestnut Street Associate Reform Church and the First Church congregations worshipped together until their union. Rev. W. J. Lowrie, D. D., from Selma, Alabama, was called to the pastorate of both churches, and began his ministry November 9, 1875. After the installation of Mr. Lowrie, the congregation worshipped in Li- brary Hall, and their pastor gained a place in the affections of the church and of the whole communi- ty. He died November 11, 1877. On July 6, 1876, Mr. Samuel Casseday, who had been identified with this church for fifty-four years, thirty-five as an elder, passed away. He was born August 6, 1795, at Lexington, Virginia, and was a son of Peter and Mary (McClung) Casseday. His father died when he was seven years of age, and he came with his mother to Kentucky in 1813. In 1822 Mr. Casseday came to Louisville, and, uniting with the First Church, entered a business career, from which he retired in 1870. After this date he was occupied with public charities, the Blind Asylum, the Orphanage and the Cook Benevolent Institu- tion. Mr. Casseday married Miss Eliza McFar- land, a daughter of one of the original members of the First Church. He came from the celebrated Tinkling Springs Presbyterian Church of Virginia, and spent here a long, useful and honored life. After the decision of the Court of Appeals at Frankfort, the First Church received the keys of the building at Sixth and Green, and elected Rev. Ed- ward O. Guerrant pastor, who began his ministry January 5, 1879. By petition to Presbytery, the two churches, the First Church and the Associated Reform Church, were united in April, 1879. In September, 1881, the church was repaired and re- dedicated, and the membership increased from two hundred and fifty to six hundred and thirty-five. Dr. Guerrant, after an active pastorate, resigned in the winter of 1881-82, and entered upon evangelistic work in this State. After a year Rev. T. D. With- erspoon, D. D., was elected pastor. The old his- toric site on Sixth and Green was sold, and a new lot secured in a more desirable locality. The hand- some new church, erected on the west side of Fourth Street, between Broadway and York, was dedicated April 13, 1891, the sermon being preached by Rev. Moses D. Hoge, D. D., of Virginia. Dr. Witherspoon being called to a chair in the Central University, Richmond, Kentucky, resigned the pas- toral charge, and, after a year, the present incum- bent, Rev. J. S. Lyons, D. D., was installed. The present membership is 580. The elders elected dur- ing this period, 1866-96, are: R. K. White, 1867-81; Patrick Joyes, 1867-94; L. L. Anderson, 1869-74; W. L. Clark, 1869-83; J. W. Nourse, 1869-72; N. D. Hunter, 1872-89; J. C. Allin, 1872-89; William Lindsey, 1872-74; J. M. Gordon, 1879 — ; David Baird, 1879—; S. C. Walker, 1879—; . M - J- Mc " Bride. 1879-91; Douglas Morton, 1886-92; Henry V. Escott, 1886—; Andrew M. Sea, 1886—; John W. Houston, 1886-94; Charles A. McGuire, 1886—; R. T. Jacob, 1892 — ; William Boa, 1893 — , and Shackleford Miller, 1893 — . The deacons were: J. M. Duncan, 1867-74; W. L. Clark, 1867-69; L. L. Anderson, 1867-69; Henry V. Escott, 1867-86: John C. Benedict, 1870-74; George Nicholas, 1870- 74; Douglas Morton, 1880-86; Shackleford Mil- ler, 1880-93; F. E. Long, 1880-82; M. K. Allen, 1886—; Joseph Shaw, 1886—; Thomas P. Smith, Jr., 1886-87; H. T. Pollard, 1886—; George W. Constance, 1886—; T. M. Hawes, 1888-93; Wade Sheltman, 1888—; W. L. Gowan, 1888—; A. E. Walesby, 1888-92; Angus W. Gordon, 1893 — ; Charles C. Fuller, 1893 — ; L. L. Anderson, Jr., 1893 — ; J. A. Vandiver, 1893 — . The Second Presbyterian Church was divided, in 1866, two-thirds of the congregation remaining with Dr. Robinson, and uniting, in 1868, chuTot. vvith tlie Southern Assembly. The property question was amicably set- tled. A commission was appointed, consisting of Hamilton Pope, George W. Morris and R. A. Watts, representing the Second Church, and William Pra- ttler, W. W. Morris and J. B. Kinkead, representing the College Street Church, to arrange the details. The property was valued at $30,000, including the Third Street building and the lot at Second and Col- lege, and was, by agreement, divided in the propor- THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 23 tion of nineteen-thirtieths for the Second Church and eleven-thirtieths for the College Street Church, this ratio being determined by the membership. The building on Third Street, valued at $20,000, was sold at private auction, and secured by the Second Church. The College Street Church received in the distribution the lot on Second and College, and $5,000 in money. New officers were elected and steps taken to build in a more desirable location. In 1869 a lot was bought at the corner of Second and Broadway, 112 by 400 feet, at a cost of $36,000, one-third of which was sold for $10,000. A building was erected for lecture and Sabbath school rooms, and temporarily for the congregation, costing $22,000, and was ded- icated in May, 1870. The General Assembly of the Southern Church held its sessions in this building soon after. On September 13, 1874, a day memor- able in the annals of the Second Church, the hand- some stone structure was completed and dedicated to the service of God. The sermon was preached by Rev. D. M. Palmer, D. D., of New Orleans, and the historic sketch of the enterprise was read by Dr. Robinson. The main building, including the furni- ture and organ, cost $90,000. On the 29th of De- cember, 1879, Mr. A. A. Gordon, one of the elders, died. He was a nephew of Dr. Archibald Alex- ander, of Princeton, after whom he was named. For forty years he was conspicuous as a Christian before this community. His intelligence, modesty, and fidelity were universally admired.- For fifteen years he had been a ruling elder, and always com- manded the confidence and high regard of his breth- ren in all the church courts. Dr. Robinson's health failed in 1880, and in consequence he re- signed his charge and was elected by the congrega- tion pastor emeritus. On October 5, 1881, after a protracted illness, Dr. Robinson died, in the sixty- seventh year of his age. . Dr. Palmer, his life-long friend, preached the funeral sermon. This church was indebted to Dr. Robinson for its remarkable growth and development from a membership of two hundred in 1866 to over six hundred. A beautiful marble tablet has been placed behind the pulpit and bears the inscription: Stuart Robinson, D. D. Died October 5, 1881. Pastor of this church twenty-three years. A profound teacher, A faithful pastor, And a true friend. Dr. Robinson was a truly great man. His work in this city was but a part of his achievement in the State and whole church. His reputation was in- ternational. He was an able preacher, a vigorous debater and influential leader, and has left an hon- ored name. Rev. John W. Pratt, formerly president of Central University, Richmond, Kentucky, was installed pastor December 4, 1881. He was a strong preacher and skillful sermonizer, and it was a source of great disappointment to the people when he was com- pelled by ill health two years later to give up his pastoral charge. The relations as pastor were dis- solved November 3, 1883. The pulpit was supplied by Dr. J. T. Hendrick, D. D., a few months, when a call was extended to the present incumbent, Rev. Charles R. Hemphill, D. D., a professor in the Theo- logical Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina. Dr. Hemphill was installed June 14th, 1885. The pres- ent membership is 623. The elders elected during the period (1866-96) are A. A. Gordon, 1866-79; Dr. William Nock, 1866-76; D. C. Heiskell, 1866-67; George W. Morris, 1866 — ; William S. Macrea, 1868—; A. B. Dean, 1866-81; Dr. J. W. Akin, 1868—; G. H. Mourning, 1868—; E. L. Samuel, 1868-73; John J. Harbison, 1868; Thomas W. I'.ul- litt, 1881— ; Dr. Vincent Davis, 1881— ; James K. Lemon, 1881 — ; Dr. John G. Cecil, 1891 — ; Howard W. Hunter, 1891 — ; Dr. Frank C. Wilson, 1891 — ; and Randolph H. Blain, 1891 — . The deacons were Rowland Whitney, 1866; J. A. Edmunds, 1866; D. A. Kean, 1866; J. F. Welter, 1866; W. J. Wilson, 1866; Thomas W. Bullitt, 1866-81; John H. Leath- ers, 1881; John Stites, 1881; William F. Booker, 1890; B. K. Marshall, 1891, and Embry L. Swear- ingen, 1891. Shelby Gillespie has been sexton for thirty years. The Walnut Street Presbyterian Church was di- vided in 1866, and the congregation, with Mr. Mc- Flroy as supply and Messrs. Gault Church a,K ' ^ atson as elders, worshipped in the Male High School, on Chestn.it Street, under the name of the Third Church. After Mr. McElroy's resignation, Dr. Yandell took charge of the church. In 1874 they were invited by th* West Chestnut Street Church to worship in die building at Sixteenth and Chestnut, still owned by the First Church. A portion of this congregation, with Rev. W. H. Claggett, the minister in charge, ceased to use this building June 28, 1874, and wor- shipped at Eclipse Hall, Thirteenth and Walnut. This congregation was recognized by the Presbytery as the West Chestnut Street Church, and on July 26, 24 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 1874, called Rev. W. H. Claggett. The remnant cf the congregation, with Messrs. H. D.Mathes as elder, and George Crawford as deacon, retained the build- ing at Sixteenth and Chestnut. The West Chestnut Street Church worshipped at Thirteenth and Wal- nut a year, when they purchased a lot, 75 by 200 feet, on the north side of Walnut Street, near Nine- teenth, and built a brick church, with an audience room 40 feet by 64, having a seating capacity of four hundred, and costing, with the furniture, $8,000. The new house of worship was dedicated November 18, 1874, Dr. Robinson preaching the sermon, and the name of the church was changed from the West Chestnut Street Church to the Fifth Presbyterian Church. On February 14, 1875, the Fresbytery dissolved the remnant of the West Chest- nut Street Church and placed their letters in the Third Presbyterian Church, and the following April the First Presbyterian Church granted the Third Church the use of the Sixteenth and Chestnut streets property, and Rev. J. J. Cook became pastor. On July 8, 1875, Dr. Wilson and his congregation united with the Louisville Presbytery in connection with the Northern Assembly. The Third Church, therefore, left the Sixteenth and Chestnut streets property, which was claimed by the party with Dr. Wilson, and went over to worship at Seventeenth and Main. On September 8th, 1875, Claggett resigned his pastoral charge of the Fifth Church, and, on April 5, 1876, the Fifth Church and the Third Church were united under the name of the Third Church, and worshipped at Nineteenth and Walnut. This congregation, in April, 1876, called Rev. J. De Witt Duncan, who was installed pastor April 9, 1876. After worshipping here about a year a mortgage on the building at Nineteenth and Wal- nut w-as foreclosed and the property was sold to the Second English Lutheran Church. Mr. Duncan resigned the charge and became principal of Bell- wood Seminary at Anchorage. The Third Presby- terian Church then worshipped in the hall at Seven- teenth and Main, and Rev. J. H. Moore became pastor in September, 1878. On February 4, 1878, Dr. Lunsford P. Yandell, a former pastor and friend of this church, died in the seventy-third year of his age. He was by birth a Tennessean and had studied medicine with his father at the Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, and at the Maryland University, at Bal- timore. Elected to a chair in the Transylvania Uni- versity to succeed his old teacher, Dr. Blythe, in 1837, Dr. Yandell moved to Louisville and assisted in the organization of the Louisville Medical Insti- tute, in which he occupied the chair of chemistry for twenty-two years. In 1839 ne vvas elected an elder in the Second Church, and served for eight years, until the formation of the Chestnut Street Church in 1847. In 1846 he was elected a professor in the L T niversity of Louisville; in 1858 he moved to Memphis. A deeply religious man, he devoted himself to the Christian ministry, and being licensed by the Presbytery of Memphis, was in 1864 ordained pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Dancyville, Tenn. In 1867 he returned to Louisville and be- came supply of the Third Presbyterian Church. Dr. Yandell was a prolific writer, a successful teacher and a man highly honored in the church and the community. In the meantime, the First Church had won their suit and bad gained, with their property at Sixth and Green, that at Sixteenth and Chestnut. By an agreement with the Presbytery, $3,957.50 from the old Westminster Church fund, known as the hospi- tal fund, was granted to the Third Presbyterian Church, with which to purchase from the First Church the property at Sixteenth and Chestnut. Rev. J. H. Moore was installed pastor of the Third Church, March, 1879. During his ministry the mission at Parkland was established. The pastoral relation was dissolved May 5, 1885. Rev. B. F. Beddinger was called August 15, 1886, and was installed in the spring of 1887. During this ministry the pastor lived at Parkland, and the re- moval to the Parkland church of a number of mem- bers crippled the Third Church. The pastoral rela- tion was dissolved December, 1889. Rev. Thomas Carey Johnson took charge of the church Novem- ber 9, 1890, and after remaining about a year was called, in September, 1 891, to the Union Theological Seminary, in Virginia. Mr. Thomas Converse sup- plied the church for a short period, when Rev. D. P. Junkin became pastor, and remaining two years and a half, was called to Mt. Hebron, Virginia. Mr. Junkin resigned in June, 1895, and Rev. Mr. Mcll- vaine, from North Carolina, was elected pastor. The present membership is 101. The elders during this period (1866-96) were: George M. Crawford, 1875-86; J. D. H. Mitchell, 1885; Albert H. Ford, 1886-93; Dr. W. H. Anderson, 1890, and James Lindenberger, 1895. The deacons were W. O. Watts, John Strubel, C. E. Loveland, 1885-93; Jno. T. Lenn, 1885; J. J. McDonald, 1890-95; O. H. German, 1890, and Charles L. Piper. Dr. William Terrell is trustee. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 25 The Fourth Church was divided in 1866, twenty- five members going with Rev. Mr. Carson to form the Westminster Church. The Foa J^X Ch P r oP er ty was divided amicably, be- ing adjusted on a basis of the mem- bership, the party with the pastor receiving a lot 64x200 feet on the south side of Chestnut Street, between Floyd and Preston, which had been pur- chased by the Fourth Church before the division. The deed, of August 23, 1865, was made by Wil- liam L. Gray for the consideration of $3,300. This church, in connection with the Synod of Kentucky, united with the Southern Assembly in 1868. Mr. Carson soon after retired from the pastorate. In the meantime the congregation had built a church on the rear of the lot. Services were held from time to time by Dr. Yandell and others, until 1873, when Rev. Homer Hendee became stated supply. In 1881 this church was dissolved by the Presbytery. The funds procured from the sale of the property, sometimes called the Hospital fund, were held in trust by a commission appointed by the Presbytery. Under the management of Col. Thomas Bullitt, the receiver, they were subsequently appropriated to help other churches, $4,000 being given to the Third Church, and $2,000 to the Highland Presby- terian Church.* The Portland Avenue Church, in 1866, went with the Synod of Kentucky into the Southern Assembly. Rev. W. W. Duncan was succeed- Portland Avenue fid v Rey q g D av id S on, who Church. f served the church a year. Rev. Philip H. Thompson began his labors on the first Sabbath in June, 1868, and was called to Mulberry Church, Shelby County, June, 1870. Rev. John D. Matthews, D. D., form- erly superintendent of public instruction in Ken- tucky, was installed November 25, 1870, Dr. Robin- son preaching the sermon, Dr. Wilson the charge to the pastor, and Rev. Mr. Thornton the charge to the people. In 1871 the congregation built a commodious nine-room parsonage, at Thirty-first . and Bank streets, at a cost of $3,000. Dr. Mat- thews served the church ably until October 4, 1877, when he was succeeded the following November by Rev. J. H. Moore, of Washington, Kentucky. On May 4, 1879, Rev. J. H. Morrison took charge of the church, and was installed the following October. After an active and useful pastorate, he resigned in 1888. Rev. G. L. Bitzer was installed September, 1889, and served the church until May 15, 1892. *Louisville Chancery Court, Case 27,267. Rev. J. N. Lyle ministered to the congregation from his installation, June 26, 1892, to October 15, 189J. A new brick church was built at a cost of $11,000, and dedicated to God December 3, 1893. The pul- pit was ably supplied, for almost a year, by Dr. Beat- tie, of the Theological Seminary, when the present incumbent, Rev. David M. Sweets, was installed July 1, 1894. The present membership is 227. The elders during this period (1866-96) were William Hal'liday, 1868-71; W. H. Troxell, 1868-69; Simon Caye, Jr., 1877; Thomas Semple, 1880-90; William H. McKown, 1885-90; William A. Snodgrass, 1885; Edward C. H. Sieboldt, 1885; F. L. Watson, 1895, and F. A. Newhall, 1895. The deacons have been David Duckwall, 1868; Joseph Irwin, Jr., 1868; S. Caye, Jr., 1868-77; Henry Crutcher, 1874- 80; J. S. O. Casler, 1877-95; Joseph Shaw, 1877- 82; Alexander Duckwall, 1883; John E. Compton, 1883-90; F. L. Watson, 1885-95; John H. Good, 1895, and George A. Munz, 1895. The Highland Church* was organized May 15, 1882, by a committee of Presbytery, consisting of J. The Highland H - Morrison, T. E. Converse and Presbyterian A. Davidson. The following per- sons presented certificates of mem- bership: Mrs. A. A. Wheeler, Mrs. Sallie R. Carter, Mrs. Mary Crawford and Miss Ella J. Crawford, from the Second Church; Mrs. Moffit, Mrs. Amer- ica Perry, Miss Mollie Harbough, Miss Lillie Har- bough, George Brockie, Mrs. A. Brockie, Mr. Charles Ross, Miss Anna Ross, William Nickol, Mrs. Jesse Nickol, William Gould, Mrs. Julia Gould, Miss Eliza A. Moffit, Mr. W. B. Fleming and Mrs. Susan Fleming, from the First Church; Dr. J. A. Larrabee and Mrs. Hattie N. Larrabee, from Col- lege Street Church; Mrs. D. T. McGill, Mr. W. C. Nones, and Mrs. Lida Nones, from the Warren Memorial Church, and were constituted the High- land Presbyterian Church. Mr. W. B. Fleming was elected elder, but having declined, the election was postponed. Mr. Nones was elected deacon, and having been ordained in the Fourth Church, was duly installed. Rev. T. E. Converse, D. D., preached for the congregation for some months, when Rev. A. D. McClure was unanimously elected pastor and entered upon his work October 1, 1882. On June 19th, 1882, Mr. Hugh L. Barret was elected elder, and, having been ordained in the Col- lege Street Church, was installed. The delightful spirit of unity and kind feeling which has marked *W. C. Nones' "Sketch of the Highland Presbyterian Church." 26 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN I,OUISVII,LE. this church is due largely to the fact that the early members were enabled to lay aside the differences which existed between the two branches of the church arising out of the separation of 1866. Mr. McClure continued to serve the church acceptably until his call to Baltimore in 1888. In the last year of Mr. McClure's ministry the frame building was removed to the rear of the lot to make room for the new church edifice. This new building was nearly completed at the time of the dissolution of the pas- toral relations, and to Mr. McClure's zeal and activ- ity in prosecuting the building of the church the congregation was largely indebted. In this con- nection, the history of the frame building is of in- terest. In May, 1874, Mr. W. H. Bulkley organ- ized the Highland Presbyterian Sunday School in a cottage known as the "Gravcroft House," on Bax- ter Avenue, opposite Christie, at the former en- trance of the Hanover Garden. Mr. J. P. Gheens, a member of the College Street Church, was the first superintendent, and was assisted by Mrs. Dr. Larra- bee and others from the same church. In May, 1876, the building in which the Sun- day School was held was sold, and Mr. Gheens bought a lot at the corner of Broadway and Highland, 90 feet front, and gave his notes at ten years' time. The College Street Church assumed the payment of the interest, and contributed $500 toward the erection of the frame building. Mr. Gheens' brother gave $500, and the remaining $300 was raised by friends of the Sunday School. The house was completed by the first Sabbath in No- vember, 1876, and dedicated by Dr. Humphrey. In 1880 the holders of the notes given by Mr. Gheens, desirous of having their money, and College Street Church having a debt of $15,000 on their new church, an arrangement was made by which the notes, amounting to $1,800 and interest, were paid out of a trust fund under the control of the Presby- tery of Louisville derived from the sale of the prop- erty of the Westminster Presbyterian Church. Un- der this arrangement the Highland Presbyterian Sunday School came under the care of the First Church. Mr. W. B. Fleming was superintendent of the school at the time of the organization of the Highland Church. The new church building, cost- ing $14,000, was commenced in May, 1887, and dedicated July 12, 1888. The pastoral relation with Mr. McClure was dissolved March 25, 1888, and the Rev. Robert E. Caldwell, from North Carolina, was installed July 3, 1888. Mr. Caldwell was a faithful pastor, and the church grew under his four years' ministry. He resigned April 12, 1892. Rev. T. M. Hawes was installed May 7, 1893. The present membership is three hundred and seventy. The elders were Hugh L. Barret, 1882-90; Daniel Til- ley, 1885; Austin A. Wheeler, 1888; W. C. Nones, 1888; James L. Howe, 1891-95; George Straeffer, Sr., 1 89 1. The deacons were W. C. Nones, 1882- 88; Horace T. Hanford, 1885-91; Joshua F. Speed, 1885-94; William Walker, 1888; Alexander T. Barr, 1888-92; Fred Gernert, Jr., 1888; Robert Wallace, 1888; William J. Rubel, 1891; H. P. Rea- ger, 1891; J. G. Allen Boyd, 1894; Percy B. Kramm, 1894; John B. Hutchings, 1894; Edward C. New- bold, 1894. The Woodland Church at Parkland was organ- ized December 2, 1886, by a commission of the Louisville Presbytery, consisting woodland church, of Rev. T. D. Witherspoon, D. D., Rev. J. H. Morrison, and Ruling Elder A. H. Ford. The original mem- bers were Robert I. Crawford, Mrs. A. T. Crawford, Mrs. Margaret C. Crawford, George M. Crawford, Browne C. Crawford, John H. Duesing, Mrs. Mary B. Duesing, Mrs. Nannie B. Brown, Mrs. Lulie Brownfield, George H. Kice, Mrs. Maria G. Kice, Mrs. Carrie Stancliffe, Thomas S. Redman, Mrs. Mary S. Redman, Miss Eva David- son, W. Frank Gregory, Mrs. Alice D. Bowie, Miss Mary Duncanson, Miss Kate Duncanson, W. B. Tate, J. E. Bruce, Mrs. J. E. Bruce, and Mrs. Helen C. Evans. Robert I. Crawford, George M. Craw- ford and John H. Duesing were elected elders, and Browne C. Crawford and W. B. Tate deacons. In 1881 Dr. Stuart Robinson gave the lot, 50 feet by 150, at the northwest corner of Amber and Wood- land streets, for the use of the Presbyterian Church. Rev. J. H. Moore, pastor of the Third Church, had charge of the mission, and the frame building was erected for church services. Rev. B. F. Beddinger preached at the mission from May 1, 1887, to Janu- ary 1, 1888, and Rev. B. L. Hobson, from January, 1888, to the following May. On September 9th, 1888, Rev. James A. Vance was installed pastor, • and served the church until July 28, 1891. Rev. T. S. Clyce, from Alabama, was installed December 6, 1891. The membership is 137. The Westminster Presbyterian Church was organized May 2, 1888, in a chapel which had been erected by the mem- W church. ter ^ ers °i tne Second Church, at the southwest corner of Floyd and Oak streets. The original members were THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. ^7 Calvin N. Caldwell, W. W. Hill, Miss Pattie S. Hill, Dr. D. D. Thomson, Mrs. E. A. Thomp- son, Mrs. Rose Converse, Miss Mary F. Converse, E. A. Grant, Jr., Mrs. Elouise Grant, Charles Belli- can, Mrs. Fannie B. Bellican, Miss Adelaide Bulk- ley, Albert Bulkley, Mrs. Annie Kershaw, Isaac Kershaw, George W. Hirst, Mrs. H. Alice Hibbs, Airs. Zerelda R. Borie, William Birgman, Mrs. Margaret Birgman, Miss Mamie Hikes, Miss Emily Brashear, Mrs. Alice M. Shaffaree, George Solo- mon, Arthur Baxter, Miss Nellie Randolph, Miss Lillie Tabb, Miss Mattie B. Hays, Charles F. Belli- can, Miss Fannie W. Bellican, Miss Helen B. Low- ry, Miss Grey Maxwell, and Mrs. Elizabeth A. Max- well. Calvin N. Caldwell was elected elder and E. A. Grant, Jr., deacon. Rev. Frank T. McFaden, a student in the Union Theological Seminary, filled the pulpit acceptably during the summer. In Sep- tember, 1888, Rev. Dr. Muller was installed pastor. The congregation worshipped in the building at the corner of Floyd and Oak. This building had been erected for the use of a Sabbath School, established by the Young Men's Association of the Second Presbyterian Church, March 18, 1886. The pres- ent handsome stone chapel at the southwest corner of First and Ormsby, costing $21,000, was com- pleted and dedicated November 15, 1891. The present membership is one hundred and fifty- seven. The elders are Dr. D. D. Thomson, George C. Albaugh, Calvin N. Caldwell and W. W. Hill. The deacons are E. A. Grant, Jr., J. Dudley Smith, Robert A. Tabb, W. S. Forrister, Charles F. Huh- lein, Thomas A. Courtenay. The trustees are Geo. C. Albaugh, W. Boyd Wilson, Charles F. Huhlein, William D. Reed and Thomas A. Courtenay. The Stuart Robinson Memorial Church was organized May 7, 1888, by a commission of Presbytery, consisting of J. H. uTZ^Tl Morrison, C. R. Hemphill, B. F. Beddinger, and Elder Vin- cent Davis. This work had grown out of a little Sunday School, organized in 1857 by Mrs. Alethea Brigham, mother of Mrs. Robinson, in the gardener's cottage of Central Park, the home of Dr. Robinson. For twenty years this mission was carried on by the Second Church. In 1881 Dr. Robinson gave the property at the corner of Mag- nolia and Sixth Street, now St. James' Court, for the use of the Presbyterian Church. Rev. J. H. Morrison had charge of the mission, in addition to his work in Portland, and, in 1888, steps were taken toward the organization of the church. There were one hundred and sixty-eight members at the time of the organization. J. P. Sonne and R. W. Hopkins were elected elders, and J. L. Cully, J. Barfie'.d and Henry R. Lord deacons. Mr. Morrison continued until October, when he entered the evangelistic work. Rev. W. T. Overstreet was ordained and installed pastor, April 25, 1889. In 1891 the cor- ner-stone of the new church was laid. The build- ing is of brick, with stone trimming, and has a seat- ing capacity of three hundred and fifty, with two hundred additional seats in the lecture room. Col- onel Bennett H. Young, to whom the writer is in- debted for this sketch, read a brief history of the church at the laying of the corner-stone. Mr. Over- street resigned May, 1892, and the following July Rev. Joseph Rennie, of Oxford, N. C, was installed, and continued the pastorate until his call to the Madison Street Presbyterian Church, Covington, December, 1895. Mrs. Stuart Robinson has taught in the Sunday School, with few interruptions, for nearly forty years. Rev. J. E. Thacker is pastor- elect of this church. The Crescent Hill Presbyterian Church was organized January 5, 1890. The names of the original members were Theodore Cr ch C urch H " 1 F - Tracy, Mrs. Mary B. Tracy, Miss Maud Tracy, Mrs. S. S. Moody, Mrs. Laura B. Williams, Mrs. Eliza Speed, Miss Jennie Ewing Speed, Mrs. Helen M. Chenowith, Miss Fannie Chenovvith, Henry M. Bul- litt, Mrs. Henry M. Bullitt, J. S. Gray, Mrs. Fannie B. Gray, Miss Annie Gray, Mrs. Sue M. Field, Miss Annie Field, J. T. Gaines, Russell Gaines, Mrs. J. T. Gaines, Misses Maggie, Mariam and Annie Gaines, and Mrs. Alice Fenley. Services were held in the district school house until February 1, 1891, when the first services were held in the new church building, and Rev. B. L. Hobson was installed pastor. The new church was dedicated April 12, 1891, Rev. Moses D. Hoge, of Richmond, Virginia, preaching the sermon, and Rev. T. E. Converse, D. D., offering the dedication prayer. Rev. B. L. Hobson was called to a chair in McCormick Theo- logical Seminary, Chicago, in 1893. The member- ship of the church is seventy-two. The present elders are John T. Gaines, 1890; J. S. Gray, 1890, and Hugh L. Barret, 1890, and the deacons, Emmett Field, 1895; Samuel S. Eastwood, 1895; Robert A. Lee, 1895, and George Straefer, Jr., 1895. R ev - William H. Marquess, D. D., of the Louisville Theological Seminary, is at present serving the church as stated supply. 28 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. The following churches, popularly known a.s Northern churches, are connected ecclesiastically with the Presbytery of Louisville, the Synod of Ken- tucky, and the General Assembly of the Presby- terian Church in the United States of America:* The Chestnut Street Church was the only church in this city that remained undisturbed in its ecclesiastical relations dur- £SS »g the war and at the un- happy period of the division of 1866. This fact is probably due to the strong, cohesive social force which has always marked this church-. In 1868 the McKee Mission build- ing, at the southeast corner Fourth and Ken- tucky streets, was dedicated, Drs. Breckinridge, Humphrey, Hays and Cleland taking part in the service. This mission had been started in 1861 by Dr. McKee, after whom it was named, and was held, for several years, in a frame building at 461 Third Avenue. A lot 100 feet by 188 feet, at the southeast corner of Fourth and Kentucky streets, was purchased! April 19, 1868, for $10,000, on which was erected a building, now used as the lec- ture room of the Central Presbyterian Church. Dr. McKee was an ardent Sunday School worker and held, in 1867, a Sunday School institute in the Chestnut Street Church, which attracted wide at- tention, both in the city and neighboring towns. This institute was conducted by Mr. Pardee, au- thor of the "Sunday School Index," and Ralph Wells, of New York City. Perhaps the most noted feature of Dr. McKee's pastorate was his children's church, held on Sabbath afternoons, for about seven years. In his preparation for this in- teresting service he was assisted by Mr. and Mrs. John A. Miller (Faith Latimer), and his amanuensis, Mrs. Sallie McKee. The service was attended by several hundred children, many of whom look back with delight to this Sabbath afternoon hour. Dr. McKee was also active in missionary work, helping to establish the Green Street Colored Church, and the church at Peewee Valley. After a useful pas- torate he resigned in November, 1870, and became vice president of Center College, Danville, Ken- tucky. ♦The eight Northern churches belong to the Presby- tery of Louisville, with 21 ministers, 27 churches, 2,897 communicants; to the Synod of Kentucky, with 36 min- isters, 81 churches, 7,787 communicants; and to the Gen- eral Assembly, with 6,797 ministers, 7,496 churches, 922,- 904 communicants, contributing last year a sum total of $13,647,579. tJefferson County Court deed book 137, p. 236. Book 167, p. 473. Rev. Gilbert H. Robertson was called, June 25, 1871, and, commencing his pastorate July 1st, was installed November 15, 1871. He occupied the pul- pit about ten months and ceased to be pastor No- vember, 1872. During this year the church was repaired at a cost of $10,000, a recess being built back of the pulpit for the organ, and the old gal- lery, at the north end of the building, being re- moved. On May 12, 1873, Mr. William S. Vernon, one of the oldest residents in the city and one of the original members of the congregation at the or- ganization of the first Presbyterian church in the city, died at the ripe age of ninety-one. Mr. Ver- non had married, on January 16, 1809, at the resi- dence of Mr. Thomas Prather, America, daughter of Captain Aaron Fontaine. He was a public spir- ited and useful man. In manner, he was naturally austere, carrying himself erect, and having, to strangers, somewhat the appearance of haughtiness, but was a man of strong faith and genuine humility. Gifted in prayer, marked by firmness, conscientious- ness and consecration, he was fitted, by nature and grace, for the office of the eldership. A short time before March II, 1873, there had died another prominent elder of this church in the person of Edgar Needham. He was born in Kent, England, came to America at the age of sixteen, and was apprenticed at Cincinnati. Ohio, as a stone- cutter. He subsequently went to New Orleans, and returned to Portsmouth, Ohio, where he en- countered the misfortune by which he was dismem- bered and became a life-long sufferer. He settled in Louisville in 1834, and soon after united with the Third Presbyterian Church. His marble works were well known in the city for many years. Like Hugh Miller, the author of "Footsteps of the Cre- ator," Mr. Needham exhibited the dignity of manual labor and the value of self-culture. He was an earnest student of the Bible, and excelled as a teacher. He was active in the Lyceum and in the Mechanics' Institute. In 1853 he became the first and only assessor of internal revenue in this dis- trict. Mr. Needham was a man of integrity, of strong convictions, and had the courage of his con- victions. He was an able writer on important ques- tions of church and state, and will be remembered as one of the brainiest men among the elders of the Presbyterian Church in this city. After a year and a half, the congregation called Rev. A. B. Simpson, D. D., who was installed Janu- ary 2, 1874. At the first of this year, the lecture room and pastor's study were renovated at a cost of THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. $3,000. The following year a work of grace be- gan in the city, following a convention of Christian workers held under the auspices of the Synod of Kentucky. Union meetings were held by Major W hittle and Mr. Bliss. Following these meetings, a series of services were held in Library Hall, and resumed in the autumn at Macaulev's Theater. There arose out of this movement a plan to build a house suitable to accommodate two thousand peo- ple. A lot on the southwest corner of Fourth Ave- nue and Broadway, 105 feet by 212 feet, was pur- chased, at a cost of $32,000, from Mrs. Van Buskirk. The name of the church was changed to the Broad- way Tabernacle Presbyterian Church in February, 1876. A building committee, consisting of John Graham, H. Burkhardt, U. B. Evarts, George Hull and H. C. Warren, was appointed. The committee adopted a plan similar to that of Dr. Talmage's Tab- ernacle, Brooklyn, and engaged the services of Mr. Welch, the architect of that building. The edifice was one hundred and twenty feet by ninety-seven in the clear, the interior being semi-octagonal in form, with a gallery twenty-four feet wide, sup- ported by cast-iron columns, extending around the entire building, except the west wall. Behind and above the pulpit platform on the west wall there was a recess gallery for the organ and the choir, eleven feet wide by fifty-one feet long. Under the organ gallery was a consulting room, the size of the gallery. The seats were arranged in an amphi- theater style, the floor having an inclination of seven feet from the door toward the pulpit. The ceiling of the audience room was vaulted and ceiled in spruce pine, the ribs being heavily molded and ornamented. The building was entered through ample doorways, filled with stained glass of rich design. The interior was furnished tastily and presented an imposing appearance. The church was of Gothic design, built of Ohio Valley pressed brick, with stone trimming. On Broadway and Fourth Avenue the gables were pierced by large six-light windows. The roof was covered with slate. The design was under the supervision of C. J. Clarke, of this city. At the laying of the corner- stone Mrs. Lapsley and Miss McNutt, the only sur- viving members of the old First Church, were pres- ent. After the completion of this beautiful and commodious house of worship it was dedicated to God, Dr. Samuel J. Niccolls, of St. Louis, preaching the sermon. Mr. Simpson resigned his pastoral charge November 10, 1879. Rev. William Adams was elected pastor, January 29 3, 1881, and installed April 12, 1881. The burden of debt resting heavily upon the congregation was a source of anxiety, and upon its removal by Mr. Warren, the Board of Trustees adopted the follow- ing resolutions, offered by R. J. Menefee. "Resolved, That in view of the princely liberality of L. L. Warren, in canceling the bonds, notes, and all other evidence of indebtedness held by him against the Broadway Tabernacle Presbyterian warren Church, acknowledging the incalcu- Memoriai lable assistance he has in mam- ways, through a long series of years, rendered the church, and desiring to make recogni- tion of the great service and wise counsel, and, above all, by way of connecting indissoluhly the name of L. L. Warren with the building on the southwest corner of Fourth and Broadway, we hereby, as far as in our power lies, change the name of the Broadway Tabernacle Presbyterian Church to that of the Warren Memorial Presbyterian Church, and request that the congregation, at an early date, shall pass a similar resolution." By a vote of the congregation, the Legislature changed the name, January 2, 1882. This handsome church edifice was burned on the night of October 29, 1881, the origin of the fire being unknown. The follow- ing Sabbath Mr. Adams preached in the College Street Church, from Isaiah 64:11, "Our holy and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised Thee, is burned up with fire, and all our pleasant things are laid waste." At the time of the disastrous fire it was thought that there were but fifty thousand dol- lars insurance upon the building. It seems that when Mr. Warren paid the debt on the church, of $43,000, he took out in his own name insurance policies to the amount of $30,000, to protect his gift. These were promptly paid by the insurance companies, and steps were taken at once to rebuild. With the retirement of Dr. Adams, May 14, 1882, Rev. A. A. Willetts, D. D., was elected pastor and entered upon his labor January 7, 1883. Noted for his genial temperament, catholic spirit and hopeful views of life, Dr. Willetts soon became popular in the city. His celebrated lecture, "Sun- shine," has been a benediction to thousands of hearts throughout the land. The new church edi- fice, patterned after the Crescent Street Presbyterian Church, Montreal, was dedicated November 23, 1884. Dr. Willetts resigned the pastoral charge January 14, 1890, and Rev. S. M. Hamilton, D. D., from New York City, was called the following November go THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. and was installed February 15, 1891. The elders during this period (1866-96) have been Edgar Need- ham, 1867-73; L. Richardson, 1867; James David- son, 1867; William Muir, 1867; Robert Atwood, 1871; O. G. Holt, 1871; S. B. Barton, 1874; D. Macpherson, 1874; R. M. Ingalls, 1874; Hector V. Loving, 1874; W. H. Robinson, 1881 ; H. C. War- ren, 1891; R. J. Menefee, 1891; Samuel L. Avery, 1891; S. P. Walker, 1895; B. K. Marsh, 1895; George F. Meldrum, 1895; W. I. McNair, 1895. The deacons have been E. H. Vernon, 1867; H. C. Warren, 1867-91; R. Atwood, 1867-71; W. Richard- son, 1867; F. H. Pope, 1867; John Graham, 1871; S. P. Dick, 1871; F. E. Williams, 1871; S. E. Jones, 1878; James A. Leech, 1878; S. J. Look, 1878; B. K. Marsh, 1881-95; R. J, Menefee, 1881- 91; W. R. Belknap, 1881; Henry Strater, 1885; George F. Meldrum, 1885; L. G. Wells, 1891; S. P. Walker, 1891-95; M. B. Belknap, 1895; David H. Wilson, 1895; J. C. Parker, 1895, and °- s - Mel " drum, 1895. The present trustees are M. B. Belk- nap, Louis T. Davidson, Edward T. Halsey, J. T. Cooper, and J. W. Davis. The membership of the church is 570. Addison Evans has served as sexton for twenty-four years. The Second Church was divided June 29, 1866, one-third forming the College Street Church, and the following persons constituting the COl church ree original members : William Prather, R. Knott and wife, J. B. Kinkead and wife, John Homire and wife, Mrs. E. N. Quig- ley, Mrs. John C. Young, Mrs. Mary Q. Morton, Miss Belle Quigley, Miss Hallie Quigley, Miss Ellen Quigley, James W. Prather and wife, Mrs. L. P. Griffith, Mrs. U. P. Gilbert, Mrs. M. A. Roberts, Miss Wallie Knott, Mrs. Hannah Tracey, Miss M. Alice Tracey, Miss Amelia C. Tracey, Mrs. Nannie Flint, Miss Mary W. Scott, Mrs. Kate Win- ston, Miss Matilda N. Prather, Mrs. E. S. Cooper, Mrs. Annie M. Parker, J. T. Cooper, Miss Lucy Homire, Mrs. Sarah Parkhill, Mrs. Cornelia Bush, Mrs. Mary Bessee, Andrew Monroe, Mrs. Fannie Quigley, Mrs. Penelope E. Shotwell, Mrs. Sarah Watson, John Daton and wife, Mrs. Sarah Beeler, R. T. Logan and wife, John A. Benseman and wife, Mrs. Julia C. Suman, John Anderson, John R. Thompson and wife, George W. Smith, Ferguson Smith, Mrs. H. B. Henry, Mrs. E. Draper, Mrs. J. D. Osborne, Mrs. Naomi Marshall, Miss Ellen F. Courtney, Miss H. Logan, Mrs. Lucy Jerome, W. W. Morris, E. Cook and wife, T. Parsons, S. F. Dawes, W. G. Timberlake and wife, Miss Pauline J, Ethell, Joseph P. Barnum and wife, Mrs. Isabella McMullen, E. H. Guilford and wife, W. H. Hervey, Mrs. Louisa W. Prather, Mrs. Jane Keigwin, Charles B. Cotton and wife, N. D. Gerhart and wife, John Mason and wife, Mrs. M. E. Bennett, Hugh L. Bar- rett, E. J. Daumont and wife, Thomas Q. Roberts and wife, Charles K. Jones, A. G. Anderson and wife, Mrs. Mary E. Nelson, Miss Josephine E. Bald- win, Mrs. J. Hall, Fred Bauer, Thomas Tracey, Mrs. Margaret Raymond, James I. Lemon and wife, Mrs. Sarah Moore, and Mrs. Mary Churchill. William Prather, Richard Knott, J. B. Kinkead and John Homire having been elders in the Second Church, were continued in office. The congrega- tion, under the ministry of Rev. John C. Young, worshipped for four months in the Chestnut Street Church, until November 1, 1866, when they pur- chased the frame building standing on the lot known as the "Little Pine. Cathedral." This build- ing had been erected several years before by Mr. A. B. Dean for a mission Sunday School. The brick lecture room was erected in the summer of 1867. Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D. D., was called December 7, 1866, from the theological sem- inary at Danville, and the name of the church changed by the Presbytery from the Second Pres- byterian Church to the College Street Presbyterian Church. In January, 1869, the Caldwell Mission was established, Dr. Humphrey giving the lot, 65x100 feet, on Caldwell Street, west of Preston Street. The handsome new church on the corner of Second and College streets, costing $52,000, was completed and dedicated to the ser- vice of God, March 21, 1875, Dr. J. M. Worrall preaching the sermon. Dr. Humphrey remained as pastor for thirteen years, and upon his resignation, May 17, 1879, was elected pastor emeritus. Rev. Robert Christie, D. D., was called October 25, 1879, and served the church ably and faithfully until he was called to St. Paul, and the pastoral relation was dissolved September 1st, 1885. Rev. J. L. Mc- Nair was elected pastor November 1st, 1887. Dr. Humphrey died December 9th, 1887. A beauti- ful marble and lacquered brass tablet adorns the walls of the church, with the inscription: Edward Porter Humphrey, D.D., LL.D., 1809-1887. Founded this church in 1866. Our pastor for thirteen years. "I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation." Dr. Humphrey belonged to that illustrious THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 81 triumvirate which adorned the Louisville pulpit at the time of the division of 1866. Dr. Wilson fig- ured as the keen debater, fearless as a lion, brook- ing no opposition ; Dr. Robinson, as a great leader, with ready wit and good humor interspersing his irresistible argument, while Dr. Humphrey, as equally clear and forcible, was yet marked by a gentler manner. Perhaps no minister in the his- tory of the Presbyterian Church in Louisville has exerted such a far-reaching influence, when we con- sider his long period of service and the number of prominent members of the church who were con- verted under his ministry. These three noted men have entered their reward, and each will hold a unique place in the admiration and esteem of the church and the community. Rev. J. L. McNair resigned April 14, 1892, and Rev. J. H. Herbener was installed the following Oc- tober. He resigned the charge and the pastoral re- lation was dissolved May I, 1895. The membership of the church is 260. The following have served as elders during this period: William Prather, 1866-76; R. Knott, 1866-90; J. B. Kinkead, 1866- 92; John Homire, 1866; John W. Anderson, 1870- 74; Isaac F. Stone, 1870; J. B. Temple, 1870-86; T. T. Alexander, 1875-83; L. H. Noble, 1875-88; John D. Taggart, 1875; J. M. Barnes, 1875-83; E. W. C. Humphrey, 1875; Hugh L. Barret, 1875-82; Thomas Speed, 1888; Charles D. Gates, 1888; J. F. Lewis, 1888. The deacons were: Richard S. Moxley, 1870 — ; E. W. C. Humphrey, 1870-75; R. H. Courtney, 1870-74; R. M. Cunningham, 1870-78; J. T. Cooper, 1870-92; H. L. Barret, 1875; Thomas Speed, 1875-88; S. S. Eastwood, 1875-92; William Griffith, 1875; Lucien G. Quigley, 1875; W. H. Mundy, 1880; Edward D. Southgate, 1880-88; John J. Barret, 1880-89; Garvin Bell, 1888; Austin Speed, 1888; R. C. Kinkead, 1888; T. W. Spindle, 1888; J. E. Ervine, 1888-96; R. Coleman Price, 1888; Lor- enzo Beeler, 1888-95; J- G. A. Boyd, 1888-95; J- Cooper Parker, 1888-92. The Rev. J. Kensey Smith is pastor-elect of this church, The Walnut Street Church, after the division of 1866, was disturbed by the property litigation for The Walnut Street SeVeral y earS - ReV " J° hn S. HayS, Presbyterian D. D., was called March 13, 1867, and after an earnest and successful pastorate resigned August 21, 1874, to accept a call to the Danville Theological Seminary. The mem- bership of the church increased to 255. The next pastor, Rev. J. J. Jones, D. D., from New York State, was installed September 17, 1874, and resigned the charge December 1, 1882. Rev. J. R. Collier, D. D., the present incumbent, was installed April 9, 1883. During his ministry the property at Eleventh and Walnut streets has been sold to the colored Episco- palians, and the congregation moved to Nineteenth and Jefferson streets. On April 14, 1891, the Walnut Street Church was united with the Jefferson Street Church by the Pres- bytery of Louisville and the name Covenant Pres- ■ • . <«. i ti «. bytenan church, changed to the Covenant Presby- terian Church, the succession of both churches being recognized in the new organ- ization. A handsome new church, built of pressed brick, with terra cotta trimmings, costing $31,000, was dedicated September 18, 1894. The building is so arranged that all the rooms can be thrown into one, giving a seating capacity of eight hundred. The seats are arranged in semicircular form, with the floor sloping toward the pulpit. The pulpit faces a large circular stained-glass window, the gift of Mrs. K. W. Smith. The general effect of the exterior is that of the Romanesque style. This church, under the efficient guidance of its earnest pastor, has be- come a busy and successful center of Christian in- fluence. The elders during this period were: H. S. Irwin, 1870; H. C. Gage, 1876; W. A. Latimer, 1883; K. W. Smith, 1883; S. L. Avery, John Ryans and W. J. Gardner. The deacons are: H. M. Nes- bitt, Leonidas Spindle, W. J. Fulton, E. B. Dau- mont, V. T. Magee, Joseph P. McBride and S. J>. Richardson. The membership is 488. The Warren Church was organized by the Pres- bytery of Louisville, October 11, 1869. During the summer of 1869 Mr. L. L. Warren had purchased a lot, 100x135 feet, on the northwest corner of Nine- teenth and Jefferson streets, "in consideration of the public good," and erected thereon a church build- ing, the entire property costing $7,000. The build- ing was dedicated July 19, 1868, by Drs. Humphrey and Hays. This mission was committed to the en- tire control of the Walnut Street Church until such time as a Presbyterian church should be organized. The Session of the Walnut Street Church accepted the trust and appointed Mr. J. B. Gheens as super- intendent, and Mr. D. McNaughton as assistant. After the organization of the church Rev. Robert W. Cleland, an ardent and much beloved pastor, took charge of the church and served until 1874 The Sunday School, under the enthusiastic manage- ment of Mr. Gheens, reached a membership of over Warren Church (1869-1891). 32 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. six hundred. Mr. J. T. Gathright and Mr. Young were elected elders. Mr. Cleland was succeeded bv Rev. S. W. Elliott, who served the church from 1875 to 1876, and Rev. John B. Worrall, from 1877 to 1878. Where this church had occupied an open field, the upbuilding of several churches of other denominations and the consequent subdivision of the field, together with unfortunate internal dissen- sions, tended to dissipate this hopeful work. Rev. A. Thomas, pastor about a year, was succeeded by Rev. R. E. Campbell on November 14, 1880. The pastoral relations were dissolved December 12,1881. For several years little was done to support the means of grace, and, finally, on April 10, 1889, this church was dissolved and later united with the Wal- nut Street Church to form the Covenant Presbyter- ian Church. The elders, since the organization, have been Walworth W. Jenkins, J. P. Gheens, D. B. Kline, J. D. H. Mitchell and W. J. Fulton. The deacons were D. B. Sperry, J. Allen Porter and I. W. Gardner. The Twenty-second Street Church was organized May 14, 1880. David Ferguson and Mrs. Naomi Twenty-second Marshall, of the College Street street church Church, had given together a lot, (18S0-1883). , . . * ■ & , ' 00x200 feet, at the southwest cor- ner of Twenty-second and Madison streets, for the use of the Presbyterian church. A chapel was built and dedicated October 3d, 1870, and committed by the College Street Church to the care of the Walnut Street Church. The latter accepted the trust and appointed J. M. Carson superintendent of the Sun- day School. Here a mission was maintained until the Presbytery of Louisville organized the new church, consisting of twenty-four members. J. P. Gheens, I. W. Gardner and Thomas Farrell were elected elders, and Rev. John Barbour, a son of Hon. James Barbour of Maysville, Kentucky, was installed pastor, May 5, 1881. Rev. Henry Kcigwin propounded the constitutional questions, Rev. R. Christie preached the sermon, Rev. J. Jones deliv- ered the charge to the pastor and Rev. E. L. War- ren the charge to the congregation. Mr. Barbour continued his pastorate until November 6, 1882, and the church was disorganized by the Presbytery of Louisville October 8, 1883, owing to the pre-occupa- tion of the field by another denomination. On June 9, 1866, an adjourned meeting of the Presbytery of Louisville was held at the Fourth Church, at which the division of the church took place. Ninety-four members remained with the Assem- Fourth Church. bly, and twenty-five went with the pastor, Rev. R. Carson, to form the Westminster Church. The prop- erty question was settled amicably, being adjusted on a basis of the membership, the Assembly party receiving the building on Hancock Street, and the party with the pastor receiving the Chestnut Street property. With the cash paid in this transfer the church purchased the parsonage on Washington Street. Rev. John C. Young was installed pastor September 28, 1867, and ceased to serve in i86<). Rev. Henry W. Paynter was pastor in 1870, and was succeeded by Rev. W. C. Matthews, D. D. This pastorate extended from 1871 to 1879, and was the most prosperous in the history of the church. Mr. James Huber was the efficient Sabbath School superintendent during this period. Rev. Harry Keigvvin served the church from April 21, 1880, to 1882. Rev. James H. Burlison was installed 1885, and remained in the pastorate until January 14, 1890. After a brief service by Rev. W. E. Bryce the Rev. Samuel L. Hamilton, the present pastor, took charge of the church. In the winter of 1894-95 the church was practically rebuilt, and dedicated on February 3, 1895, Drs. Hemphill, S. M. Hamilton, T. E. Con- verse and E. L. Warren delivering addresses on the occasion. The present membership is 125. The elders during this period were: W. A. Porter, J. O. Campbell, 1856; T. P. Barclay, 1873; B. Rankin, 1873; George Seibert, and Colonel D. W. Hilton. The deacons were: S. Snodgrass, L. Monheimer, Henry Smith, George Diefenbach, Albert Hopkins and S. B. Curry. That portion of the First Church adhering to Dr. Wilson received the name of the Central Presby- terian Church December 9, 1878. This congregation had united with the northern branch of the Presby- terian Church July 8, 1875. After the decision of the suit concerning the First Church property in 1878, Dr. Wilson resigned his charge, and his con- gregation accepted an invitation from the trustees of the McKee Mission to occupy their building at Fourth and Kentucky streets. The relations between Dr. Wilson and the First Church were dissolved December 9, 1878, and at the same meeting the name of the church was changed. The elders con- tinuing in office were W.Lindsey and R.I.Crawford. Rev. William C. Young, D. D., was called Febru- ary 9, 1879, and served the church with marked ability until September 17, 1888. During his pas- torate the new church, on the corner of Fourth and Kentucky, was built, at a cost of $30,000. Rev. Central Church. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 33 J. M. Richmond was installed March 3, 1889, and served the church until June 25, 1894. Elder John G. Barret died May 14, 1890. Mr. Barret was reared in Greensburg, Kentucky, and on his removal to this city united with the Chestnut Street Church, where he was elected an elder August 29, 1859. Having removed his membership to the Central Church he became a liberal supporter of that work, taking a marked interest in the building of the new church at Fourth and Kentucky streets. Mr. Bar- ret also built a handsome church for the congrega- tion of the Presbyterian church at Greensburg, his former home. Rev. W. B. Jennings, the present in- cumbent, was installed February 10, 1894. The present membership is 309. The elders during this period have been R. I. Crawford, 1879-86; W. Lind- sey, 1872-88; George Nicholas, 1879-85; George Harbison, 1880; J. G. Barret, 1880-90; Clarke Bradley, 1886; C. M. Garth, 1886; Jacob S. Bockee, 1890; F. C. Nunemacher, 1896; J. C. Benedict, 1890. The deacons" were George Nicholas, 1870-79; J. C. Benedict, 1870-90; James M. Duncan, 1867; David H. Allen, 1877-90; Edward E. Porter, 1879-82; John B. Huntley, 1879—; C. M. Garth, 1884-86; Vernon D. Price, 1884-92; J. A. Zimmerman, 1890; A. L. Gould, 1890-93; I. Merwin, 1890 — ; C. M. Bullitt, 1892— and William M. Charlton, 1892—. The Green Street Colored Presbyterian Church was organized May 29, 1870, at Ninth and Green streets, by a committee of Presby- tery, consisting of E. P. Humphrey, J. L. McKee, J. S. Hays and Elder James Davidson. The original members were Benjamin Tinker, formerly owned in Dr. Mc- Kee's family, and for many years sexton of the Chestnut Street Church; Mrs. Hannah Cobb, Ben- jamin P. Ferguson, Mrs. P. B. Ferguson, Andrew Ferguson, Mrs. Harriet Butler, Miss Mary Jane Butler, Mrs. M. A. Pointer, Calvin Threlkeld, James Jones, Mrs. Mahala Jones, Mrs. Dorcas Harris and Mrs. Mildred Crawford. A call was extended to Rev. J. R. Riley, who, with the aid of the Board of Freedmen, entered with zeal upon his pastoral work. The congregation worshiped in the building on the south side of Green Street, near Ninth, until June 29, 1879, when Andrew Ferguson, out of his hard- earned accumulations, purchased for his people a building on Madison Street, between Eleventh and Twelfth, at a cost of $4,880. Rev. J. R. Riley, hav- ing served the church for sixteen and a half years, resigned the pastoral charge December 27, 1886, and Rev. W. M. Hargraves was installed June 26, Knox Church. 1887. After a pastorate of four years and a half he resigned the charge September 8, 1891, to accept the chair of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Christian Evidences in Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C. Rev. George S. Turner was pastor for three years and was succeeded by Rev. S. W. Parr, the present incumbent. This church has sent two young men into the gospel ministry, and ordained twelve elders. The elders were Benjamin P. Ferguson, who served the church twenty-one years; Calvin Threlkeld, James Jones, B. F. Briggs, Clarence Mil- ler, who served the church sixteen years; John Walker, A. S. Hundley, John Sweeny, W. H. Grif- fith, William Johnson, W. B. Ellis and J. R. Clark. Jesse Merriwether, so long interested in the pub- lic schools for colored youth, was a member of this church. The present membership is 60. Andrew Ferguson died February 2, 1896, in the seventy- sixth year of his age, respected by all who knew him and beloved by the congregation to whom he had been a true benefactor. A tablet adorns the church wall, with the inscription: To the Memory of Andrew Ferguson. Born October 3, 1820, Died February 2, 1896. "He was worthy, for he loveth our people And hath built us a synagogue." The Olivet Presbyterian Church was organized at Twenty-fourth Street and Portland Avenue by a committee of Presbytery, consisting of Revs. A. B. Simpson, J. Jones and C. F. Beach, May 7, 1878. D. B. Kline was elected elder, and George H. Weber deacon. This enterprise grew out of a Sabbath School established in the Montgomery Street school house by Rev. J. M. Sadd, the city missionary, and superintended successively by Messrs. Halliday, Gheens and Gathright. D. B. Kline became super- intendent in May, 1875, and built with the aid of the Board of Church Erection a chapel at Twenty- fourth and Portland Avenue, costing $2,100. In the fall of 1877 this chapel was dedicated, and Rev. E. L. Warren took charge of the congregation until the organization of the church the following May. Elder L. L. Warren gave the lot, eighty-five feet by two hundred, valued at $2,500. Immediately after the organization a month's service, conducted by the pastor in charge, aided by Dr. Samuel R. Wil- son, E. P. Humphrey and A. B. Simpson, result- ed in the addition of twenty-seven members. Mr. Warren was abroad a year and on his return in- Calvary Church. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. stalled pastor the last Sabbath in November, 1879. During his ministry, two hundred and seventy-four members were received into the church. A hand- some new church, costing $18,000, was dedicated November 25, 1885. This edifice is built of brick, with stone trimmings, and seats five hundred people. Mr. Warren resigned the charge in November, 1888, to accept a call to the Clifton Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati, O. Rev. J. W. Boyer served the church from February 23, 1890, to March 8, 1892, and was succeeded the following May by Rev. J. P. Dawson. The name of the church was changed by Presbytery April 12, 1893, to the Calvary Presbyterian Church. Mr. Dawson resigned June 25, 1894, and was suc- ceeded by the present incumbent, Rev. L. J. Adams, who was installed December 16, 1894. The pres- ent membership is 147. The elders during this period were: David B. Kline, 1878-91 ; Robert Hat- ten, 1879-80; J. W. Heeter, 1882-84; Thomas Far- rell, 1885-86; C. J. Comstock, 1887—; H. T. Cook, 1887-96; John N. Marion, 1891-92; E. P. Philpott, 1891-92; Samuel Stites, 1891-95, and George H. Weber, 1896 — . The deacons were: George H. Weber, 1878-86; Frank W. Grossman, 1879-82; Charles J. Comstock, 1882-87; C. J. Doman, 1883- 89; John Ren wick, 1884 — ; Richard Roberts, 1887-88; F. E. MacKenzie, 1887; E. T. Tobern, 1890-93; E. P. Philpott, 1890-91; George A. Munz, 1890-91 ; Joseph Best, 1891; J. F. Haddon, 1891-95; F. S. Cook, 1891-94; W. H. Hart, 1893—; J. A. Moore, 1893—; F. S. Moses, 1893-94; G. W. Solo- mon, 1893—; J. S. S. Casler, 1896—, and Wil- lis D. Nuttall, 1896—. The Alliance Presbyterian Church was organized April 10, 1892. This project grew out of the Presby- terian Alliance, which was organ- church! ' ze< * in tne °f J 889- Services were held at Luesing's Hall, corner of Third and B streets. Mr. T. H. Paden, a student of Danville Theological Seminary, conducted ser- vices during the summer of 1890, and was succeed- ed by a lay evangelist, W. E. Hall. On July 20, 1 89 1, a lot, at the northwest corner of Second and C streets, 54x180 feet, was purchased by the Alli- ance for $1,620. A new building was erected and opened December 6th, 1891, Rev. T. E. Montgom- ery taking charge of the work. The building was dedicated January 31, 1892, and the church organ- ized the following April, with thirty-eight mem- bers, as follows: Mrs. J. R. Anderson, Stanley H. Anderson, Alexander T. Barr, Mrs. Sara C. Barr, Miss Paralee Barr, Mrs. Kate Bender, James Brock- ie, Mrs. Jennie Brockie, Peter Caldwell, Mrs. Mary T. Caldwell, Miss Nettie A. Caldwell, Miss Carrie M. Caldwell, William E. Caldwell, Mrs. Addie C. Campbell, Charles Gould, Lawrence Hooping, Lan- nie Lannom, Mrs. Sallie Lannom, Miss Amelia Luesing, Miss Rose Helm Luesing, Mrs. Barbara Meyers, Miss Avena Meyers, Dr. Charles M. Thrus- ton, Frederick Bender, Miss Mary Caldwell, Mrs. Emma Cummings, Miss Maud Decker, William James, Mrs. Eleanor Robinson, Mrs. Sue Shober, Mrs. Ollie Thruston, Henry Brewer, Thomas Cum- mings, Miss Maggie Deitchman, Miss Helen Far- nam, Miss Lillian Farnam, Ohther Raizor and Miss Mollie Walla. Peter Caldwell and A. T. Barr were elected elders, Dr. Charles M. Thruston and James Brockie deacons. David Bennett, W. R. Hite, F. Bender, A. Campbell and W. T. Straw were elected trustees. Rev. E. C. Trimble took charge of the work and was installed pastor June 16, 1895, Rev. W. B. Jennings, D.D., preaching the sermon, Rev. E. L. Warren, D.D.,deliveringthe charge to the pastor, and Rev. J. R. Collier, D.D., the charge to the con- gregation. The present membership is ill. The Louisville Orphan Home Society was or- ganized January 30, 1849. Mrs - Samuel Casseday may be regarded as the mother of °Home 8 tn ' s institution. As early as 1834 she had engaged in an effort to found a Protestant Orphan Home, which subse- quently became the Protestant Episcopal Orphans' Home. Having set aside private funds, she urged the Presbyterians of the city to found a Presbyterian institution, and at her death left $1,700 for that pur- pose. At a meeting held January 30, 1849, a board of managers was appointed, consisting of three from each Presbyterian Church in the city, to whom the whole subject was referred. Mr. William Richard- son presided at this meeting, a constitution was adopted, and Mr. Samuel Casseday was elected the first president of the board of managers. The Legis- lature chartered the society February 26, 1849, un ~ der the name of "The Louisville Orphan Home So- ciety." In 1853 the Booth property, situated on the west side of Preston Street plank road, south of Campbell, now Kentucky Street, and containing ten acres, was purchased from George L. Douglass, Esq., for $13,000. Mr. Otis Patten devoted himself to the raising of funds, and Mrs. Eubank, who had been associated with Mrs. Casseday in the earlier efforts, became teacher, and subsequently matron of the home. The institution depended for sup- port on subscriptions from the churches. At dif- THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. 35 ferent times large donations were made, one of $5,000 by bequest of James Garvin, Esq., and a do- nation from Mr. George Douglass of $5,000. At the death of Isaac Cromie, Esq., a large estate, partly located on Portland Avenue, between Nineteenth and Twenty-first streets, was bequeathed to the so- ciety. This bequest, together with the Preston Street property, constituted an endowment of $120,- 000, though a large part of this was unproductive. At the time of the division of the church in 1866 the property was equally divided, and each society was incorporated by the Legislature as the successor of the Orphan Home Society, each having the rights and franchises conferred by the original charter. By agreement, the Assembly Church retained the Preston Street property, and the Southern Church after occupying for a time the Nicholas resi- dence established the Louisville Presbyterian Or- phanage at Anchorage. This School of the Prophets, under the control of the Synods of Kentucky and Missouri, in connec- tion with the Southern Asscmblv, Theological . . r o seminary. was organized in the spring of 1893. The first session there were enrolled thirty-one students, the second year fifty-two stu- dents, and the third year sixty. The board of direc- tors are Rev. J. G. Hunter, D.D., Rev. J. S. Lyons, D.D., Rev. William Irvine, D.D., Rev. L. H. Blan- ton, D.D., and Rev. W. L. Nourse, D.D., W. T. Grant, Esq., Bennett H. Young, Esq., Judge J. K. Sumrall, T. W. Bullitt and R. S. Veech, Esq., repre- senting the Synod of Kentucky, and an equal num- ber from the Synod of Missouri. The present faculty consists of Rev. William Hoge Marquess, D.D., Professor in the School of Old Testament Exegesis and the School of the English Bible and of Biblical Theology; Rev. Charles R. Hemphill, D.D., Professor in the School of New Testament Exegesis; Rev. T. D. Witherspoon, D.D., LL.D., Professor in the School of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, and the School of Biblical In- troduction; Rev. Francis R. Beattie, Ph.D., D.D., Professor in the School of Systematic Theology and the School of Apologetics; Prof. T. M. Hawes, Pro- fessor in the School of Elocution; Rev. Edwin Mul- ler, D.D., Professor in the School of Church His- tory and Church Polity. In reviewing the history of the church during the past eighty years, there is much of earnest con- secration to Sabbath School, mis- Church History, sionary and charitable work not found in the official records, and yet a potential factor in the success of the church. The splendid work and influence of Godlv women is seen in the lives of such members as Mrs. Rosanna Hughes, Miss McNutt, and Mrs. W. C. Bullitt, Miss Martha Bliss, and Mrs. Eubank; Mrs. Patrick Pope, and Mrs. Owsley; Mrs. Samuel Casseday, with the Orphans' Home; Mrs. Sadd, with her city mis- sion work; Miss Jennie Casseday and Mrs. James Buchanan, with their Flower Mission and Rest Cot- tage; Mrs. M. E. Crutcher and Mrs. Albert Day, with the Women's Christian Association; Mrs. Cowan and Mrs. Ingalls, with the Colored Indus- trial School; Miss Lafon and Miss Quigley, with the Children's Free Hospital; Mrs. Theobold, with her Sunday School work; and Mrs. John A. Mil- ler (Faith Latimer), known and loved throughout the land on account of her primary class writings in the "Sunday School Times." In connection with this public spirit, we note the labors of Mr. A. A. Hoge- land, the founder of the work among the newsboys, and W. H. Bulkley, agent of the American S. S. Union, who established in this city many Sunday Schools that are now flourishing churches in the various denominations; of Rev. J. M. Sadd, city missionary, the predecessor of the Holcombe Mis- sion work; and of the lamented James Huber, with his splendid success in the Young Men's Christian Association. Had we space, we would gladly dwell on the religious press, in connection with our history. Rev. J. G. Monfort, D.D., the senior member of the "Herald and Presbyter," of Cincinnati, began his editorial career in this city, in 1836, as associate with Rev. W. L. Breckinridge, D. D., in the publi- cation of the "Presbyterian Herald." This paper was carried to Bardstown, and edited by Rev. Nathan L. Rice, and thence to Frankfort, and was brought back to Louisville in 1844. From that time to 1861, the "Presbyterian Herald," so ably edited by Rev. W. W. Hill, D. D., exerted a positive influence in the upbuilding of the church in this city. In 1862, Drs. Robinson and Morrison published "The True Presbyterian." Drs. Clelland and McKee pub- lished, in 1864, "The Western Presbyterian." This paper was edited from 1866 to 1870 by Rev. Heman H. Allen, D. D. On Dr. Robinson's return to Louisville after the war, he edited "The Free Chris- tian Commonwealth," which was edited by Rev. J. V. Logan, D. D., in 1868, and in 1869 was merged into "The Christian Observer," now one of the best religious papers in the Southern Church. The literature of the church has been rich and 86 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN LOUISVILLE. varied. Dr. Halsey's chaste pen produced "The Life of President Green," of Danville; "The Life of President Lindsey," of Nashville; "Literary At- tractions of The Bible," "Scottish Influence in Civil- ization," and half a score of similar works. Dr. Sawtell wrote of the early church in his "Treasured Moments." Dr. Robinson published his "Church of God," and his life work, "Discourses of Re- demption." Dr. Humphrey published "The Life of Dr. Clelland," and his great work "Sacred History." Dr. Willetts published "The Miracles of Jesus;" Rev. Henry M. Painter, "The Life of Christ;" and Dr. Pratt, his "Given to Christ." Mrs. John A. Miller published several volumes, the best known being her popular "Dear Old Stories Told Once More." Dr. T. Cary Johnston has just issued his "History of The Southern Presbyterian Church." Time would fail to tell of the numerous reviews and newspaper articles written by Louisville Presbyter- ians during the great controversies through which they have passed. The following Louisville ministers have presided over the deliberations of the highest court of the church, the General Assembly: Edward P. Hum- phrey, at St. Louis, in 1851; W. L. Breckinridge, at Indianapolis, in 1859; Stuart Robinson, at Mobile, in 1869; T. A. Hoyt, at Charleston, in 1880; T. D. Witherspoon, at Vicksburg, in 1884; J. J. Bullock, at Baltimore, in 1888; W. C. Young, at Portland, in 1891 ; and Charles R. Hemphill, at Dallas, in 1895. The Old School General Assembly met in this city in 1844, and the Southern Assembly in 1870 and again in 1879. Thus are we brought to the close of the review of the planting and growth of the Presbyterian Church in Louisville. We have assumed that the intelligent reader knows the relationship of the Presbyterian Church, as an integral part of the uni- versal church, to the cause of Christianity, and also knows the relationship of the local church to the denominational. As a denomination, the Presbyterian Church stands for much that is valuable and noble. We will not forget our history; we will not forget what our existence means and what it cost. We will not forget "What anvils rang, what hammers beat, In what a forge and what a heat Was shaped the anchors of our hope." We have a free constitutional polity. We hold to that body of doctrine which we believe is taught in the Holy Scriptures. We confess a faith, inspir- ing, formative, dominating. A republican church in a republic, animated and controlled by a pure and heroic faith, must be a mighty power for good. "That which we have known and our fathers have told us, we will not hide from our children, showing to the generations to come the praises of the Lord and His strength, and His wonderful works that He hath done; for He established His testi- mony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which He commanded our fathers that they should make known to their children, that the generations to come might know them, even the children that should be born ; who should arise and declare them to their children, that they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, and keep His commandments."